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45 Cards in this Set

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What type of skeptic is Hume?
Hume is an academic skeptic. He doesn't think we can come to knowledge for this claim. He thinks God either exists or he doesn't. Can I know if my car's in the parking lot? I don't KNOW that. This is his view as an empiricist. We're all biased. Everything we say is through a particular lense.
Where does Hume think the contents of our minds come from?
Hume thinks all the contents of your mind come from impression.
IF all ideas come from impressions, what does that mean for the concept of self?
He thinks you couldn't have an idea of self unless we have an impression of self. How do we talk about the self? WE think there's something constant. I get an impression by sensation which causes the impression. We don't say this about the self.
How do we talk about the self?
How do we talk about the self? WE think there's something constant. I get an impression by sensation which causes the impression. We don't say this about the self.
How do we think about the self in relation to time?
We think of the self as continuous all the time and present always. Can have impressions that are emotions which don't arise at the same time. Impressions are momentary. Nothing is ever constant over time.
Hume's Argument against the self P1.
P1. COmplex ideas can be broken down into simple ideas.
Hume's Argument against the self P2.
P2. By the copy principle, every simple idea is merely a copy of some impression one has had.
(Impressions come before simple ideas. There's my impression of the table when I see it then that creates a simple idea in my mind.)
Hume's Argument against the self P3
IF an impression were to give rise to the idea of self then it would have to continue invariably the same throughout the whole course of our lives.(Must not change throughout our lies. We don't think the self ever changes. But the self only comes in through perception so you'd have to be perceiving something throughtout the course of your life.)
Hume's Argument against the self P4
There are no such things as impressions that are constant and invariable.
(As Ried says consciousness doesn't always do that. Hume says we'd say we're still the same person though we don't lose ourself or change ourself. I'm a different person 5 years ago but we're changing and learning but I'm still the same entity and self.)
Hume's Argument against the self P5.
Then, no impression could give rise to the idea of the self.
Hume's Argument against the self C.
If no impression of the self, there is no such idea as the idea of the self.
Hume's Argument against the self:
P1. Complex ideas can be broken down into simple ideas.
P2. By the copy principle, every simple idea is merely a copy of some impression one has had.
P3. If an impression were to give rise to the idea of self then it would have to continue invariably the same throughout the whole course of our lives.
P4. There are no such things as impressions that are constant and invariable.
P5. Then, no impression could give rise to the idea of the self.
C. If no impression of the self, there is no such idea as the idea of the self.
What does Locke think about the concept of identity? What does Reid worry?
Locke thinks identity doesn't have anything to do with physical make up. You can transplant ideas/soul into the body of someone else. He says personal identity comes through consciousness/memory. Reid worries consciousness and memory are very different.
What does Hume want to know?
Hume wants to know what the self is and where we get the notion of constancy? We seem to believe in this concept of identity. WE didn't have a who am I where am I crisis.
What is the problem facing Hume?
The problem Hume faces is we mistakenly say identity is the wrong thing.
Do we ever get an idea of identity?
It seems to be constant and invariable.
What does Hume say abot my perceptions and how we know things?
Hume says what we perceive is a resemblance relationship of objects. When I look at something I have an impression of it. I look compose an idea of it. IF I see it again, I will pull up that idea and look at the idea. SAy these things look the same so they ARE the same. Psychologically we do this because ideas resemble. Since ideas resemble we attach identity. We can't help it.
What does Hume say about mistaken identity?
Hume says we mistakenly attribute identity to things.
We perceive a resemblance of objects.
And we mistakenly believe that we are percieving the SAME object as existing over time (persisting over time).
So, identity is merely a projection of ours.
Identity P1. HUME
WE mistakenly attribute identity to things.
Identtiy P2. HUME
We perceive a resemblance of objects.
Identity P3 HUME
And we mistakenly believe we are perciving the same object as existing over time.
Identity COnclusion HUME
So, identity is merely a projection of ours.
Why does Hume think we fill in the blank?
Because ideas resemble I fill in the gap and assume it's the same chair. I have no evidence and I'm not justified in saying this. WE have no good reason to believe my house will be gone. Hume says it's just who we are. If we didn't have memory we wouldn't be able to live.
How are Hume and Locke alike? How do they differ?
Hume's like locke in that it comes from memory. But Locke says it's justifiable, whereas Hume says it's unjustifiable.
What is an example which shows identity is continuous? Think about a car...
When you get into an accident and you get new parts you still say it's the same car. You ascribe identity to your car.
Where does Hume say identity resides?
Hume says everythign is changing. There's a resemblance behind it. Even though a church building burns down we still say it's the same Church, it's just a new building. Hume thinks we don't really have any identity.
Does locke think it's a problem for there to be 3 princes?
Nope.
Daniel Dennett
American Philosopher writing during the cold war. WE've got an issue we let it tunnel but now it's stuck in the earth under Tulsa. Could take the brain out and put antenae on your skull. Then the transmitters are in your brain don't cause it to slow, it's instantaneous. Body can go down and complete the mission.
What three questions does Dennet pose and what are the answers to each?
1. Am I my body? IS that who I am? NO
2. Am I my brain? NO
3. Just where I think I am? Based on my point of view
What is Dennet?
Dennett is a physicalist. Believes mental states are physical states. Thinks every thought going on is in the brain.
What does Dennet think about physical and mental states?
Believes mental states ARE physical states. THinks every thought going on is in the brain.
Hamlet
Dennet's body
Yorick
Dennet's brain
What is Dennet's big question?
Where are my thoughts? What are their spatial coordinates?
Does Dennet think he is his body? Why?
I can imaging my thoughts put into another body and yet still being myself so I am not my body.
Does Dennet think he is his brain? Why?
I'm having these thoughts but I'm not in my body. I'd wake up and think OMG I look like the cobbler! What happened.
What happens to Hamlet and Yorick?
Hamlet goes to CA Yorick stays in Houston
What is the crime example Dennet uses and what does it illustrate?
Hamlet goes to CA Yorick stays in Houston. A federal crime is committed. IF they imprision Yorick would Hamlet feel imprisoned? The inputs come in from wherever the body is. When HAmlet wakes up the body identifies with the brain. The brain is doing something invaluable. IF the brain's not operating, Yorick will be alive and still feel free. Wherever you imprision Yorick doesn't really matter because his brain's not doing any seeing or hearing so it doesn't lok like you are your brain.
Is identity based on your point of view?
What’s going on here is that he thinks that there’s something to the fact that when we go to certain movies or work under certain conditions (for instance), there are times when we forget where, in fact, we are. This leads him to think that maybe he should believe that “where Dennett is” just precisely is where he thinks he is—that is, what his point of view his. But then, after thinking about this some more, he concludes that this can’t be, because even though we may “feel” transported during the movie or while we are working with mechanical arms, we never “really” think that we are somewhere else.]
People working in the lab with mechanical arms get the sensations. The POV is you are actually in there doing this. Thyroid cancer they use robots for tiny instruments which can remove tumors. You don't feel the tumor as you would when operating but the surgeons see themselves as doing it.
What's the problem with having identity be based on POV?
Problem is that it's not just a personal POV b/c these can shift even if you don't move.
Fortinbras
Dennet gets a new body to replace Hamlet
What happens when he goes under ground?
His body starts losing his senses and contact with Yorick. He finds himself in a new body
What happens when he is in a new body?
It takes him awhile to get used to it such as to get used to his new voice muscles ect.
He is put into fortinbras. He feels like the same Dennet. He goes to observe Yorick and realizes he is being run by a computer duplicate which is in sync with Yorick. He thinks this is strange because he can't tell a difference between being run on this and on his own mind.
What problem arises when he learns he has a new body and a new brain?
Hurbert is his new computer brain. He's worried they could clone him and put himself in the identitcal body. It shouldn't matter but it matters to us. If they're in different places and one could be home with his wife and or he could be out int he house
What happens at the end?
. We know at the end of the colloquium that Yorick and Hubert are out of sync because when Dennett flips the switch, expecting nothing to occur (since he believes that they are perfectly in sync), something does happen—namely, we hear this story about how the two had become out of sync and how he’s been trapped—with no control over the body—for about two weeks now. We learn from the current speaker that he was aware of the fact that the two were out of sync and was aware that there was another entity that did have control over the body (Fortinbras). At the end of the piece, what the speaker suggests is that they arrange for another body, so that they both will not be trapped in Fortinbras. In short, the idea is that only one of Yorick and Hubert will remain hooked up to Fortinbras, and the other will get hooked up to some other body.]