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25 Cards in this Set

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Autonomous choice requires action that is:
1. Intentional
2. With understanding
3. Without controlling influences
(3 answers)
Negative requirements of respect for autonomy:
To refrain controlling so long as the action does not harm others.
(1 answer)
Positive requirements of respect for autonomy:
1. To make people aware of their options, sometimes to increase one's options
2. To permit and facilitate understanding of their options
(2 answers)
Rules for application of the principle of respect for autonomy in medical professionals:
1. Tell the truth
2. Respect privacy
3. Protect confidentiality
4. Obtain informed consent
5. When asked, help to make important decisions
(5 answers)
Kinds of consent:
1. Expressed consent
2. Tacit consent
3. Implied/implicit consent
4. Presumed consent
5. Future/deferred consent
(5 answers)
Expressed consent
Agreement offered linguistically of through conventional gestures. The basic paradigm of consent
Tacit consent
Agreement offered silently by not refusing.
Implied/implicit consent
Agreement that is inferred by others on the basis of actions
Presumed consent
Agreement that is inferred by others on the basis of what we know about the person's values and other actual choices.
Future/deferred consent
Agreement after the fact.
Elements of informed consent
1. Threshold
2. Informational
3. Consent
(3 answers)
Threshold elements
1. Competence to understand and decide
2. Voluntariness in deciding
(2 answers)
Informational elements
3. Disclosure of material information
4. Recommendation of a plan
5. Understanding of 3 and 4
(3 answers)
Consent Elements
6. Decision in favor of a plan
7. Authorization of the chosen plan
(2 answers)
Elements of Competence
1. To understand the material information
2. To make judgements about the information in light of their values
3. To intend a certain outcome
4. To communicate freely their wishes in light of their values.
(4 answers)
Kinds of influence
1. Coercion
2. Manipulation
3. Persuasion
(3 answers)
Coercion
Influence is coercion if and only if one person intentionally uses a credible and severe threat of harm or force to control another person
Manipulation
Influence in manipulation if and only if one person intentionally uses control over information or emotional appeals to control another person
Persuasion
Influence is persuasion if and only if one person intentionally uses reason to bring about a belief in the other

INFLUENCE BY PERSUASION DOES NOT COMPROMISE VOLUNTARINESS
Material information that mus be disclosed:
1. Those facts or descriptions that patients or subjects usually consider material in deciding whether to refuse or consent to the proposed intervention or research.
2. Information the profession believes to be material
3. The professional's recommendation
4. The purpose of seeking consent.
5. The nature and limits of consent as an act of authorization
(5 answers)
Understanding=
has acquired pertinent information about the diagnosis, prognosis, the nature and purpose of the intervention, alternatives, risks and benefits, and recommendations, and has JUSTIFIED, relevant beliefs about the nature and consequences of his or her action.
Kinds of surrogate decision making
1. Substituted judgement
2. Pure autonomy
3. Best interests
(3 answers)
Substituted Judgement
The surrogate should make the decision that the incompetent patient would have made if competent.
Pure Autonomy
The surrogate should make the decision that the incompetent patient expressed autonomously while still competent
Best Interest
The surrogate should make the decision that most benefits the patient, taking into consideration both the benefits and risks or costs