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66 Cards in this Set

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What are the two major categories of/approaches to philosophy?
Analytic and Synthetic
What does Analytic philo. do?
Clarifies
What does Synthetic philo. do?
Creates
Analytic philo. says Synthetic philo....
sees castles in the sky
Synthetic philo. says Analytic philo. gets...
lost in the minutiae
A stylized language game played according to formal and arbitrary rules.
Debate
This type of communication is won or lost.
Debate
A form of conversation in which the communicants strive for reciprocal understanding.
Dialogue
A process of communication that is not a contest but a mutual search for meaning.
Dialogue
Which area of philosophical study asks this question:

How Do We know?
Epistemology
Which area of philosophical study asks this question:

What is Real?
Metaphysics
Which area of philosophical study asks this question:

What is Good, Right, or Beautiful?
Axiology
(values)
What is the central focus in espistemology?
How do we know?
Analyses and speculations in this field of endeavor result typically in theories of knowledge.
Espistemology
This field of philosophical activity is characterized by attempts to deal with the age-old problems of explaining how it is possible for human beings to know anything and what opportunities and limits accompany the human effort to explain or understand.
Epistemology
_________ seek to clarify and refine the process of knowing.
Epistemologists
What study areas are closely related to epistemology?
Truth, Logic, and Perception
The prime concern of those in the field of metaphysics is...
What is real?
What philosophical field trys to solve this: What truly exists and how what exists is ordered or organized are characteristic problems.
Metaphysics
Early Greek philosophers of this field wanted to name and describe the original and invisible "stuff" of the universe.
Metaphysics
The questions "What is good?" "What is right?" and "What is beautiful?" are dealt with in the area of...
axiology
In this field philosophers wrestle with their concerns over what "should" or "ought" to prevail in the world.
Axiology
In this field, philosophers deal with the nature and application of 'values'.
Axiology
_____ ranges over a wide landscape of philosophical problems, but it usually touches heavily on issues relating to ______, ______, and ______.
Axiology-

the good person, the good society, and the good life.
Social systems, political arrangements, and moral codes are typical concerns of the philosophical realm surveyed by the _________.
axiologist
Religion stresses ____, ____, and ____. In contrast, the emphasis in philosophy is _________ and ________.
faith, devotion, and worship.

on understanding and wisdom.
The goal of philosophy is not ____ or ____.
commitment or salvation.
Which 18th century philosopher strongly criticized the assumption that there is a necessary connection between a cause and an effect?
David Hume
An ____ is a list of two or more statements, one of which is designated the ____ and the rest of which are designated _____.
arguement

conclusion

premises
The ____ states the point being argued for, and the ____ state the reasons being advanced to support the _____.
conclusion

premises

conclusion
In philosophical reasoning, another word for statements is _______.
propositions
The study of logic is a study of...
the rules of reasoning by which people arrive at conclusions.
The term "reasoning" merely identifies the practice of...
drawing conclusions from premises.
What are the two distinctive processes of reasoning?
Psychological and Logical
The psychological process of drawing conclusions from premises is called _____.
inference
_____ _____ takes place only when evidence is stated in the form of propositions and those propositions are formly related as premises and conclusion.
Logical reasoning
_______ is a form of communication designed to persuade, to motivate people toward a predetermined action or opinion.
Rhetoric
______ is the skillful use of language in an effort to elicit a particular response.
Rhetoric
_____ is a means; it takes the form of intellectual coercion or psychological persuasion.
Rhetoric
This form of communication tends to be uncritical and dogmatic.
Rhetoric
The traditional way of classifying logical arguments is to designate them either _____ or _____.
inductive or deductive
_____ refers to the process of drawing conclusions from specific evidence.
Induction
It is the process of reasoning in which the conclusions are typically drawn from the observation of particular cases.
Induction
_______ claim that we can experience directly only what is concrete or particular.
Inductionists
A conclusion reached through the inductive process is never _____ _____.
absolutely certain
_____ arguments are "strong" or "weak."
Inductive
Inductive logical procedure is tightly linked to the concept of _______.
probability
The inductive probability of an argument is...
the liklihood that its conclusion is true as long as the premises are factual.
____ logic gives the power to project forward in time and predict what will probably occur.
Inductive
_____ logic stresses the effectiveness of basing conclusions on the careful and extensive accumulation of pertinent evidence.
Inductive
The defining characteristic of a 'valid' deduction is its _______.
certainty
Instead of labeling arguments "strong" or "weak" or even "correct" or "incorrect," the deductive logician applies the terms _____ and _____.
valid and invalid
A ____ agrument is one that has the property of being legitimately derived from premises by prescribed logical deduction.
valid
One pattern of _____ reasoning is found in the syllogism.
deductive
A _____ is a precise and standardized form of agrument that contains two premises and a conclusion.
syllogism
The _____ syllogism is expressed conditionally using if-then propositions in the premises.
hypothetical
In a hypothetical syllogism, the first key term of the major premise is called the _____, and the second key term is called the _____.
antecedent

consequent
The validity or invalidity of the [hypothetical] syllogistic argument is determined by the way the...
terms of minor premise relate to the terms of the major premise.
(In a hypothetical syllogistic agrument)

When the minor premise affirms the antecedent of the major premise, the argument is ______.
valid
(In a hypothetical syllogistic agrument)

When the minor premise affirms the consequent of the major premise, the syllogism is ______.
invalid
Hypothetical syllogisms are also valid when the minor premise...
denies the consequent of the major premise.
Hypothetical syllogism are also invalid when the...
minor premise denies the antecedent of the major premise.
Philosophers often label foundational considerations in ethics as _________.
meta-ethics
Philosophers often label the individual ethical judgments we make as __________.
normative ethics
______: the study of how, if at all, our ethical judgments are true; the attempt to precisely define ethical concepts found in moral reasoning.
meta-ethics
Perhaps the most important issue in meta-ethics is...
whether the alleged foundation, once articulated, is the same for all of us.