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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the two major categories of/approaches to philosophy?
Analytic and Synthetic
What does Analytic philo. do?
What does Synthetic philo. do?
Analytic philo. says Synthetic philo....
sees castles in the sky
Synthetic philo. says Analytic philo. gets...
lost in the minutiae
A stylized language game played according to formal and arbitrary rules.
This type of communication is won or lost.
A form of conversation in which the communicants strive for reciprocal understanding.
A process of communication that is not a contest but a mutual search for meaning.
Which area of philosophical study asks this question:

How Do We know?
Which area of philosophical study asks this question:

What is Real?
Which area of philosophical study asks this question:

What is Good, Right, or Beautiful?
What is the central focus in espistemology?
How do we know?
Analyses and speculations in this field of endeavor result typically in theories of knowledge.
This field of philosophical activity is characterized by attempts to deal with the age-old problems of explaining how it is possible for human beings to know anything and what opportunities and limits accompany the human effort to explain or understand.
_________ seek to clarify and refine the process of knowing.
What study areas are closely related to epistemology?
Truth, Logic, and Perception
The prime concern of those in the field of metaphysics is...
What is real?
What philosophical field trys to solve this: What truly exists and how what exists is ordered or organized are characteristic problems.
Early Greek philosophers of this field wanted to name and describe the original and invisible "stuff" of the universe.
The questions "What is good?" "What is right?" and "What is beautiful?" are dealt with in the area of...
In this field philosophers wrestle with their concerns over what "should" or "ought" to prevail in the world.
In this field, philosophers deal with the nature and application of 'values'.
_____ ranges over a wide landscape of philosophical problems, but it usually touches heavily on issues relating to ______, ______, and ______.

the good person, the good society, and the good life.
Social systems, political arrangements, and moral codes are typical concerns of the philosophical realm surveyed by the _________.
Religion stresses ____, ____, and ____. In contrast, the emphasis in philosophy is _________ and ________.
faith, devotion, and worship.

on understanding and wisdom.
The goal of philosophy is not ____ or ____.
commitment or salvation.
Which 18th century philosopher strongly criticized the assumption that there is a necessary connection between a cause and an effect?
David Hume
An ____ is a list of two or more statements, one of which is designated the ____ and the rest of which are designated _____.


The ____ states the point being argued for, and the ____ state the reasons being advanced to support the _____.


In philosophical reasoning, another word for statements is _______.
The study of logic is a study of...
the rules of reasoning by which people arrive at conclusions.
The term "reasoning" merely identifies the practice of...
drawing conclusions from premises.
What are the two distinctive processes of reasoning?
Psychological and Logical
The psychological process of drawing conclusions from premises is called _____.
_____ _____ takes place only when evidence is stated in the form of propositions and those propositions are formly related as premises and conclusion.
Logical reasoning
_______ is a form of communication designed to persuade, to motivate people toward a predetermined action or opinion.
______ is the skillful use of language in an effort to elicit a particular response.
_____ is a means; it takes the form of intellectual coercion or psychological persuasion.
This form of communication tends to be uncritical and dogmatic.
The traditional way of classifying logical arguments is to designate them either _____ or _____.
inductive or deductive
_____ refers to the process of drawing conclusions from specific evidence.
It is the process of reasoning in which the conclusions are typically drawn from the observation of particular cases.
_______ claim that we can experience directly only what is concrete or particular.
A conclusion reached through the inductive process is never _____ _____.
absolutely certain
_____ arguments are "strong" or "weak."
Inductive logical procedure is tightly linked to the concept of _______.
The inductive probability of an argument is...
the liklihood that its conclusion is true as long as the premises are factual.
____ logic gives the power to project forward in time and predict what will probably occur.
_____ logic stresses the effectiveness of basing conclusions on the careful and extensive accumulation of pertinent evidence.
The defining characteristic of a 'valid' deduction is its _______.
Instead of labeling arguments "strong" or "weak" or even "correct" or "incorrect," the deductive logician applies the terms _____ and _____.
valid and invalid
A ____ agrument is one that has the property of being legitimately derived from premises by prescribed logical deduction.
One pattern of _____ reasoning is found in the syllogism.
A _____ is a precise and standardized form of agrument that contains two premises and a conclusion.
The _____ syllogism is expressed conditionally using if-then propositions in the premises.
In a hypothetical syllogism, the first key term of the major premise is called the _____, and the second key term is called the _____.

The validity or invalidity of the [hypothetical] syllogistic argument is determined by the way the...
terms of minor premise relate to the terms of the major premise.
(In a hypothetical syllogistic agrument)

When the minor premise affirms the antecedent of the major premise, the argument is ______.
(In a hypothetical syllogistic agrument)

When the minor premise affirms the consequent of the major premise, the syllogism is ______.
Hypothetical syllogisms are also valid when the minor premise...
denies the consequent of the major premise.
Hypothetical syllogism are also invalid when the...
minor premise denies the antecedent of the major premise.
Philosophers often label foundational considerations in ethics as _________.
Philosophers often label the individual ethical judgments we make as __________.
normative ethics
______: the study of how, if at all, our ethical judgments are true; the attempt to precisely define ethical concepts found in moral reasoning.
Perhaps the most important issue in meta-ethics is...
whether the alleged foundation, once articulated, is the same for all of us.