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77 Cards in this Set

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What is a worldview?
A basic belief system or a comprehensive picture of the nature of reality.
Belief System
Set of claims about what reality is
3 types of worldviews
1.) Theism
2.) Pantheism
3.) Naturalism
Nature of God in the Theism Worldview
-God is the ultimate reality
- God is the creator
-God Creates ex Nihilo (out of nothing)
-God is a personal being
- God is all powerful
- God is eternal and not changing
Nature of the world in the Theism Worldview
- World is completely and always dependant on God
- God is not dependant on the world in any way
- God is active in the world and makes himself known (Ps. 19)
Nature of Man in the Theism Worldview
-Created in image with God and made for a relationship with him
- We are morally responsible to God
- Afterlife
Nature of God in Pantheism
- God and nature (world) is one
- God is non personal
- Emanational creation

Metaphor: God is to the world as ocean is to a wave; where wace is the extension of the ocean, as God is to creation
Nature of the World in Pantheism
1.) Maya - (it seems real, but it is not really real)
2.) Illusion - everything is an illusion
Nature of Man in Pantheism
- Denises that there is life after death for the person
- Ego Illusion
Why are Pantheists uncomfortable with Logic?
Because everything is one so there are no distinctions ultimately, and logic is about making distinctions
Panthesim vs. Theism
THESIM
- Creator = God
- Creation = Universe
- Ultimate metaphysical dualist

PANTHEISM
- God = World
- Ultimate metaphysical monism
- Believes God and the world is one
Naturalism
- believes nature (universe) is the only thing that exsists
- deny that there is any supernatural
- no life after death
- No god which means no meaning to life, we make it ourselves
- "Science tells us everything" would be the modern naturalists
Metaphysical Naturalism
the worldview; another name for naturalism
Methodological Naturalism
an approach to science believing when doing science, methods must be naturalistic
What worldview has the highest regard for humans?
Theism
Some people think Philosophy is 4 things. What are those 4?
1.) Subject Matter
2.) Activity (We do)
3.) Tool (We use)
4.) Way of life
Philosophy as an Activity
"Conceptual Analysis"
The tool helps us work with philosophical ideas
Philosophical Problems Involve....
questions about the meaning, truth, and logical connections of philosophical ideas that resist solution by th empirical sciences
3 Different types of Philosophical Ideas
Type 1: Basic Ideas

Type 2: Belief and theories about type 1 ideas

Type 3: Logical implications of type 2
Examples of Type 1 Philosophical Ideas
- God
- Beauty
- Knowledge
Examples for Type 2 Philosophical Ideas
- God Exsists
- Beauty is subjective
- Only science gives Knowledge
Examples for Type 3 Philosophical Ideas
- God should be worshipped
- Anything can be beautiful
- There is no moral knowledge
Characteristic of Philosophical Idea
Highly general and therefore commonly contriversial
Questions of philosophical ideas
3 Kinds of Questions
- Meaning
- Truth
- Logical Connections
Meaning Question
definitional question (what is)
usually you would start with this type of question

(Helps with Type 1)
Truth Question
Is there....Does things exsist?

(Helps with Type 2)
Logical Connection Question
Any questopmn with the connection between two or more philosophical ideas

(helps with Type 3)
Empirical Question
any question that we can answer just by looking at the world. Some of these questions are simple, and answering them is simple.

For instance, if you ask me ‘Is it raining?’ I can answer you just by looking out the window.

But some empirical questions are much more complicated. If a scientist asks, ‘Can this new drug cure diabetes?’ then I can answer by looking at the world, but this looking will be a very special kind of looking. I must prepare scientific studies and trials with human subjects, and I must submit my work to examination by my colleagues in the scientific community. The question, though, is still empirical, because to answer it one need only look at the world.
Example of Empirical Question
How many oranges are on that tree?
Can this drug cure type 1 diabetes?
Philosophical Question

any question that we cannot answer just be looking at the world. To answer such a question we must use our skills in philosophy.

Example of Philosophical Question
suppose someone asks ‘where is movie M playing?’ That is an empirical question, because we can answer it just by looking at the world. We can, for instance, look up the theater listings in the newspaper. But suppose instead that someone asks ‘Is move M a good movie?” That is a philosophical question. Just looking at the movie, even looking carefully, will not answer the question. You may think it is a good movie, and I may think it is not.

This is a philosophical question in part because it contains a philosophical idea (‘good movie’). Movies are works of art, and the question of what makes something a good work of art is a philosophical question. If we accept a subjective view of what makes art good, then your liking the movie means that for you the movie is good. If we take an objective view of what makes art good, then your liking the movie tells us about you, not about the movie. You may like it, but it might still be a bad movie on objective grounds
Parts of Philosophy as a subject
1.) Ethics
2.) metaphysics
3.) Epistemology
Ethics
Philosophical study of our morals - part of worldview

Philosophical study on morality (ideas that make up our worldview)
Metaphysics
Basic nature of reality; what things are real
Epistemology
Knowledge and belief
Other sects of Philosophy
Philosophy of Art (Aestetics)
Political Philosophy (best form of gov)
Philosophy of Science
Philosophy of Religion
Does God Command something because it is right, or is something right because God Commands it?

Divine Command Answer:
"Morally Right" -because it was commanded by God

"Ex lex" - outside of the law
God is outside of moral law

You cannot steal what you own, and God owns everything
Objections to the Divine Command Answer of:


Does God Command something because it is right, or is something right because God Commands it?
- It would make God amoral or nonmoral

- Some things are gut feeling are wrong, that God could not make right
Does God Command something because it is right, or is something right because God Commands it?

Divine Reason Answer
-God commands something because it is right; what makes something or action right is that if fits life's design, and it is morally wrong if it violates life's design
Objections to the Divine Reason Answer of:


Does God Command something because it is right, or is something right because God Commands it?
- Makes God irrelevant to morality
- We put ourselves in a position to judge or condemn God
Everyone (including non christians) need their own type of apologetics, or worldview defense, because:
1.) To respond to their own doubts and questions about personal beliefs

2.) Defends against rejections from others
The narrowness objection
Some christian beliefs are narrow, such as "Jesus is the only way to heaven." This narrowness is very bad thing, therefore, we should reject the christian faith
The narrowmindness objection
Because Christians believe these narrow beliefs, like "Jesus is the only way to heaven," they become narrowminded, intolerent people, so we should reject christianity
What is Truth?
truth is a property of propositions
What is a proposition
a special kind of meaning or declaritive sentances.
Logical Consistency
2 propositions are logically consistent if they both can be true
Belief
a proposition someone believes is true
When one belief is narrow......
then all beliefs are narrow
How can we show, using the philosophical tool, that if any belief is narrow, then all beliefs are narrow
When believing a belief, I reject that all other beliefs that are logically inconsistent with my belief. In that sense, all beliefs are narrow!
Why is the narrowness view so popular
Because Christianity has an image problem
The image of christianity - why we have an image problem
1.) Work of Satan, and sinfulness of human heart to accept lies about God

2.) Looks narrow because of its missionary message

3.) Other group imafe: looks better (broader) than christianity...it's an image advantage
Why should people not get angry with other people sharing their worldview?
When the charge is made that any type of missionary or evangelist are immoral, they believe they are doing the morally right thing based on their worldview
Theme of Class
Philosophy as an intellectual tool for two things:
1.) Worldview instruction
2.) Worldview Defense
3 Types of Philosophy
1.) Ethics
2.) Metaphysics
3.) Epistemology
Standard Answers to "Why live a moral life?"
1.) If we live a moral life, God will reward us, and if we do not, he will judge us

2.) If we live a moral life, society will be stable/peaceful. Uf we do not, society will collapse, it is bad for all

3.) If I live a moral life, people will admire me and treat me well, but if I don't people will not like me, nor will they treat me well (weak)

4.) Even if people do not treat me well, I will have inner peace, if I do not, I might destroy myself
Why is "If I live a moral life, people will admire me and treat me well, but if I don't people will not like me, nor will they treat me well" a weak answer to "Why live a moral life"
This can seem weak and people will take advantage and think of you as weak
All four answers to the question "Why live a moral life" has something in common
They tell us that living a moral life will benifi me, and if not, it will cost me
Consequestialism (people who like the question "Why live a moral life"
Utilitarianism

Ethical Egoism
Utilitarianism
It is morally right if It is the one that create the greatest amount of good in MY world (consider everyone)
Ethical Egoism (Rand)
It is morally right if it producesthe best consequence for ME
Duty Ethics (non consequentialism)
(People who do not like the question "Why live a moral life)
Something is morally right if It comforms with your duty regardless of consequences

Appeal to Reason

Appeal to God (Divine Command)
Psychological Egoism
(Not a Philosophical Theory)

A belief that as a matter of fact, everyone is always motivated by self interest
Ethical Egoism
Regardless of wheterh psychological egoism is right or not, everyone SHOULD be motivated by self interest
Difference between Psychological Egoism and Ethical
Psychological says that it is a MATTER OF FACT (for certain) that we are motivated by self interest

Ethical says it SHOULD be motivated by self interest
How to practice Philosophy or make use of philosophical skilles
it is necessary to learn to recognize which ideas and which questions belong to philosophy.
3 skills of philosophy
(1) asking philosophical questions

(2) making philosophical distinctions

(3) working with philosophical definitions
Philosophical Ideas
Type 1 - Singe Ideas
Type 2 - Basic Beliefs or theories
Type 3 - Implications of Type 2
Philosophical Ideas (Type 1)
these are ‘single ideas,’ often expressed by a single word or a couple of words, that represent important elements of our worldviews. Examples: God, justice, beauty, knowledge, science.
Philosophical Ideas (Type 2)
these are basic beliefs or theories about Type 1 philosophical ideas. Examples: The beliefs that God exists, that beauty is subjective (“beauty is in the eye of the beholder”), and that only what we learn from science counts as genuine knowledge.
Philosophical Ideas (Type 3)
these are implications of Type 2 philosophical ideas. Examples: If beauty is subjective, then anything at all can be beautiful; if the God of theism exists, then He should be worshipped; if the only genuine knowledge is scientific knowledge, then there can be no religious knowledge (e.g., I could not legitimately say, ‘I know that God is love’).
Meaning Questions
is, roughly, a request for the philosophical definition of a term.

If I ask, ‘What is justice?” I have asked a meaning question. Asking a meaning question is much easier than answering it, because the question is about a philosophical idea. Remember that defining philosophical ideas involves controversy. We cannot simply look up the word in a dictionary. We must learn to use philosophical skill to work through competing answers to the question. Recognizing a meaning question is usually easy, and it normally will have the form “What is X?” where “X” is a philosophical idea.
Truth Questions
Again using the letter “X” to denote a philosophical idea, we can show the forms a truth question is likely to take: ‘Does X exist?,’ Are there any X’s?,’ and ‘Is X real? There are other forms, but these are enough to give you a good idea of what a truth question is. Take any controversial idea from philosophy, and you will likely find that some people think something real corresponds to that idea, and some will deny this. We can ask: ‘Does God exist?’ or ‘Are human rights real?’ or ‘Is there any objective moral knowledge?’
Logical Connections Questions
A logical connections question is a question about the relation between two or more philosophical ideas. We might ask whether ‘X is a form of Y’ or whether ‘if X is true Y must be false’ or if ‘X is a necessary condition for Y.’ There are many forms of logical connections questions because there are many sorts of connections philosophical ideas may have to each other. Examples: ‘Is free will a necessary condition for moral responsibility?’; ‘If there is no God, can there still be moral absolutes?’ or ‘Is every good government a democratic government?’
Philosophical Distinctions
The distinctions we make allow us then to ask more and better questions. The purpose is to try and increase our understanding of the ideas before us, and ultimately, help us understand the world (and our worldview) better than we have understood it



One way to make distinctions in philosophy is to try out a set of concepts to represent various types of things that fall under some philosophical idea. For instance, take the idea of justice. We can distinguish distributive justice (a just distribution of goods among people) from retributive justice (seeing to it that criminals receive the punishment they deserve).

Another way to make distinctions in philosophy is to place an idea in a variety of contexts. Take the idea of ‘good work of art.’ In a subjective context, a good work of art is anything that pleases the person examining it (‘I like movie M, so for me it is a good movie’). In an objective context, a good work of art is anything that meets a set of publicly identifiable criteria (‘Movie M
Responding to contriversial philosophical ideas
lay out competing definitions of a philosophical idea, considering the implications of each in an attempt to determine which definition is more likely to be useful or correct.


Example: What is knowledge?

Definition #1: Knowledge is justified true belief. I know P if P is true, if I believe P, and if I have some good reason (justification) for believing P to be true.

Definition #2: Knowledge is completely justified true belief. I know P if P is true, if I believe P, and if I have absolutely conclusive evidence (justification) for believing P to be true.

Now if definition #1 is correct, I will know a great many more things than if definition #2 is correct. In fact, definition #2, if pressed, might result in the claim that we don’t really know anything at all (philosophical skepticism), and that seems counterintuitive. Definition #1 is more useful; it fits our actual talk about knowledge more closely than definition #2.
Stipilate a definition for a philosophical idea
you simply declare that ‘by ‘X’ I will mean the following. . .’ You are ‘trying out’ a definition to see whether it is useful in some way, such as helping you to identify good questions to ask about ‘X’ and other, logically connected philosophical ideas (‘Y,’ ‘Z’).
In trying out definitons, what will you be doing at the same time?
In trying out definitions you will often, at the same time, be making philosophical distinctions. For instance, in the case above about the idea of knowledge, you are making a distinction between a weak sense of knowledge (definition #1) and a strong sense of knowledge (definition #2).