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10 Cards in this Set

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What is relativism and what two features are common?
Relativism is sometimes identified as the thesis that all points of view are equally valid. In ethics, this amounts to saying that all moralities are equally good.

1. They all assert that one thing (e.g. moral values, knowledge) is relative to some particular frame work or standpoint (e.g. the individual subject, a culture, a language).
2. They all deny that any standpoint is uniquely privileged over all others.
What is moral relativism?
It is a cluster of doctrines concerning diversity of moral judgment across time, societies, and individuals.
What is descriptive relativism?
It is the doctrine that extensive diversity exists and that it concerns values and principles central to moralities.
What is meta-ethical relativism?
It is the doctrine that there is no single true or most justified moralitiy.
What is normative relativism?
It is the doctrine that it is morally wrong to pass judgment on or to interfere with the moral practices of others who have adopted moralities dofferent from one's own.
What is utilitarianism?
It is a theory of ethics that prescribes the quantitative maximization of good consequences for a population. It is a single value system and a form of consequentialism and absolutism. This good is often happiness or pleasure.
What is negative utilitarianism?
It requires us to promote the least amount of evil or harm, or to prevent the greatest amount of harm for the grest number. It would seem to call for the destruction of the world even if only to avoid the pain of a pinprick.
What is act utilitarianism?
It states that we must first consider the consequences of our actions, and from that, make an appropriate choice that would then generate the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest amount of people involved.
What is rule utilitarianism?
It states that we must consider the consequences of a rule instead then follow the rule which would best yield the most happiness for the most amount of people involved.
What is preference utilitarianism?
Preference utilitarianism is a particular type of utilitarianism which defines the good to be maximized as the fulfillment of persons' preferences. Like any utilitarian theory, preference utilitarianism claims that the right thing to do is that which produces the best consequences; when defined in term of preference satisfaction, the best consequences can include things other than pure hedonism, like reputation or rationality.