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63 Cards in this Set

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Who was the father of Modern Philosophy?
Descartes
Method of inquiry, method of doubt, Cogito ergo sum- I think therefore I am.
Descartes
2 tests applied to any truth-clear and distinct idea...Perfect Entity- God would not deceive us, I exist, the world exists, God exists
Descartes
"Discourse on Method", Epistimological turn-ask how I know first, before we ask what is real. Extension-Matter-body, thought-mind-nonmaterial, innate ideas
Descartes
Responds to Descares Dualism, Monist, everything is part of one, 2 attributes-God/Nature
Spinoza
MODES, determinism, Stoical Ethics-accept everything that is determined-there is no freedom, see everything from perspective of eternity- big picture,
Spinoza
Free to become all that can be within your inherent capabilities. (can grow apples on an apple tree but not oranges)
Leibnitz
"Essay on Human Understanding", tabla rasa/blank slate, no innate ideas, sensation experience, reflection experience.
Locke
Simple Ideas (cold, wet, white), complex ideas (snow), perceptions...are they reliable? Primary qualities-objective, secondary qualities-subjective (odor, sound)
Locke
Political Theory, "Two Treatises of Civil Government", response to Hobbes Leviathan, response to Glorius revolution, natural moral law, natural rights-life, health, liberty, property
Locke
Separation of Powers
Locke
To be is to be perceived, Epistemological Idealism-can only know perceptions (mental events/ideas), Consistent empiricist-eliminates all but what is perceived/experienced
Bishop George Berkley
Only I and my perceptions can be known, If a tree falls can it be heard? I exist in the mind of God
Berkley
Simple ideas, complex ideas=cut and paste of simple ideas, false complex ideas-God, angels; law of causation=habit of association, not necessary connection.
David Hume
View on miracles skeptical-just because he hadnt seen one doesnt mean they can't exist. Sentiment/feeling are the reason we respond to others, not reason; historical view of economic forces and intellectual forces
Hume
Voltaire, Rousseau, Monesquieu, DIderot were during the _____ period
Enlightenment
Opposition to Authority (Revolutions), Natural Right, Social Contract, Rationalism-Age of Reason
Enlightenment
Movement towards educating the masses, Pegagogy, The Encyclopedia; Cultural Optimism
Enlightenment
Return to Nature, Goodness of Man, Natural Religion, Deism, Human Rights, Declaration of the rights of man...PostModernism responds to this
Enlightenment
Mind is an active Agent organizing perceptions, Innate Categories of the Mind-Time, space, relation/causation, quantity, quality, modality
Immanuel Kant
Copernican Revolution, perceptions conform to Categories of the mind not vice versa, Phenomena-perceptions of objects via categories
Kant
Noumena-things not limited by our categories of mind, unity of consciousness-self, perceiving, memory, categorizing, regulating ideas/transcendental ideas
Kant
Act only how you would want everyone to act, treat everyone as a means, not a means to an end, moral postulates proven by reason, free will, immortal soul
Kant
"Perpetual Peace"= UN, League of Nations
Kant
Reasoned through process of incorporating everything into one big picture, Dialectic Method of Logic, Thesis, Antithesis, Synthesis
Hegel
Social Ethics- individual will, morality (freely intentional duty), Politics- individual, everyone, state, special world-historical person who is agent for world spirit
Hegel
He influences Kierkegard, Feurbach, Marx and Engels, and Freud during Romanticism
Hegel
Reaction to Hegel's philosophy, Father of Existentialism-existence vs essense, individual vs universal, subjective vs objective
Kierkegard
Faith=objective uncertainty, limit of reason, suprarational-paradox of Christianity, experience existence when you choose/commit
Kierkegaard
"Purity of Heart", Stages on Life's way (to God), Aesthetic, ethical, religious-leap of faith
Kierkegaard
Inverts Hegels Philosophy, "Essence of Christianity" is humanity, Theology is Anthropology-study of God is study of man's thinking of GOd
Ludwig Fuerbach
History is man's attempt to overcome his alienation from himself, to understand a man, understand his work
Fuerbach
Positivism-religion of humanity, theological stage (fictitious), metaphysical(abstract), scientific(positivism); Father of Sociology
Auguste Comte
Theory of Dialectic Materialism, History of class conflict/struggle through 5 epochs of history (primitive, slavery, feudalism, capitalism, communism)
Marx
Substructure (foundation/base of society) factors of production, conditions of, and means of production
Marx
Alienation of work from worker, bourgeois, proletariat, unequal distribution of profit, revolt when numbers sufficiently disproportionate between classes
Marx
Law, art, philosophy, religion-keep people submissive, state and religion are product of dominant economic group "religion is the opiate of the people"
Marx
Ideas of justice and goodness are not eternal because reflective of material order, Engels-secretary, Leninism, Social Democracy, end for capitalism, means for capitalism
Marx
Descent of Man, Neodarwinism-mutations, primal soup
Darwin
Id, superego, ego, theory of the unconscious, free individual from repression so individual can function healthily
Freud
Interpretation of Dreams, Future of an Illusion-religion is an illusion created to comfort and control, surrealism=expressing the unconscious in art and literature, creativity
Freud
Romanticism flavor, Joyful wisdom, Twilight of Idols, Revaluation of values-affirm life with aesthetics
Nietzsche
nihilism, night approaches, who killed God?, Will to Power-master morality, slave (herd) morality-despised mediocrity of the herd
Nietzsche
Question is to commit suicide or not, Life does not give us meaning or answers, but suicide is not the answer
Albert Camus
Only by living in the face of life's absurdities can humans achieve their full stature, "The Stranger", "The Myth of Sisyphus", "The Plague", "The Rebel"
Albert Camus
"No Exit", "Nausea", existence precedes essence-you exist and then choose to become something
Sartre
Individual responsibility for who and what you are and choose to be, sense of abandonment because God is dead
Sartre
No God, no values, no determinism makes you free, condemned to be free, authenticity in honesty
sartre
only in action is their reality, no meaning prior to an act of the will, value-what you make of it, Annihilate what is irrelevant
Sartre
Goal is to be authentic, totally free, honest, responsible-Theatre of the Absurd
Sartre
Apply existentialism to feminism, mother of feminism, "Second Sex"
Simone de Beauvior
Men are normal, women are abnormal, Women must choose for themselves who they will become
Simone de Beauvior
American Pragmatist, truth is what works, radical empiricism
William James
Facts but no God-God but no facts=facts +God
"Varieties of Religious experience"
William James
Religion has useful consequences and fruitful effects (changed lives), "Will to Believe"
WIlliam James
Will, not intellect enables us to have faith, change from being spectators to being participants, religion offers a world of promise
William James
Pascal's Wager- what do I stand to gain the most, lose the most-why not be on the safe side; Never achieve absolute truth because reality is always changing,
William James
When we love a thing it becomes valuable, we dont love things because they are valuable, we have a choice, free will
William James
Language Games, Rules of language vary with context, language gives us pictures of the world, goal-end philosophy
Ludwig Wittgenstein
Knowledge=language, narrative is the means of creating ourselves, postmodern
Richard Rorty
Deconstruction, meaning is not author's view, but readers interpretation + interaction, fiction creates its own world
Jacques Derrida
History reflects the power/interpretation of the time, assertion of knowledge=act of power
Michel Foucault
concept- Deconstruct systems with illusory unifying construction, liberation from oppressive "truths", world without absolutes
PostModern