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24 Cards in this Set

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ARGUMENT
A set of statements one of which called the conclusion is affirmed on the basis of the others, which are called the premises.
STATEMENT
A sentence that is neither true or false.
TRUTH VALUES
Truth and falsehood are the two possible ____. So, we can say that a statement is a sentence that has _____. IS IT TRUE OR FALSE?
PREMISE
The statements on the basis of which the conclusion is affirmed.
CONCLUSION
The statement that is affirmed on the basis of the premises.
LOGIC
the study of methods for evaluating whether the premise of an argument adequately support (or provide good evidence for) its conclusion.
metaphysics
The study of what exists, how it exists.
epistemology
theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope (limitations) of knowledge. "How do we 'know'?"
Value
What should we do? Ethics.
Metaethics
Ethics: "murder is wrong"
Applied Ethics
Ethics: "prostitution is wrong"
Idealism
the philosophical theory which maintains that the ultimate nature of reality is based on the mind or ideas. In the philosophy of perception, idealism is contrasted with realism, in which the external world is said to have an apparent absolute existence. Epistemological idealists (such as Kant) claim that the only things which can be directly known for certain are just ideas (abstraction). In literature, idealism means the thoughts or the ideas of the writer.
Physical Continuity
The idea that body and brain are what makes the identity.
Psychological Continuity
The idea that memories and experiences are what make the identity.
Soul Continuity
The idea that soul and mind are what makes the identity.
Dualism
a set of views about the relationship between mind and matter, which begins with the claim that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical.
AD HOMINIM FALLACY
a. Appeal to the person.
b. When you go at the person instead of the argument
c. Offensive fallacy
Appeal to Authority (FALLACY)
Fallacy: a. Sister says euthanasia is terrible, sister is a good person – therefore euthanasia is terrible.
Fallacy
A false notion. A statement or an argument based on a false or invalid inference.
Genetic Fallacy
Fallacy: a. Argue that a claim is true or false on the basis of its origin.
False clause fallacy
Fallacy: a. Lucky rabbits foot will help me win games
Conceptual Analysis
a general term for techniques typically used by philosophers in the analytic tradition that involve "breaking down" (i.e. analyzing) philosophical issues. IF AND ONLY IF...
Premise: GOD IS BY DEFINITION IS THE MOST PERFECT BEING.

Premise 2: ITS BETTER TO EXIST INREALITY THAN IN THE MIND ALONE

CONCLUSION: God exists in reality
The Ontological Argument – ANSELM ARGUMENT
1. You cant change the past.
2. You can have casual influence over the past
3. If you come across plans for a time machine, go back in time and leave them for your younger self.
4. Don try to go someplace you know you haven’t been.
Rules of Time Travel