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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The thesis advanced by the argument is called its...
The reasons cited in favor of that conclusion are called its...
Rhetorical force:
power to persuade
Literary merrit:
is the argument clearly stated
Rational strength:
what philosophers consider. does the argument make you believe that the conclusion is true
4 basic principles of argument reconstruction
The argument is deductively valid if..
the truth of the premises would gurantee the truth of the conclusion
Non deductive arguement
the conclusion ventures beyond the information contained in the premises
Inductive arguments..
are stronger or weaker according to the sample size and the unbiasedness of the sample
An argument is sound iff...
it is deductively valid and all of its premises are true
Affirming the consequent
concluding that the conclusion is true because the premise is
Fallacious argument
is flawed in its logic (premise) or form (structured form)
Informal fallacy
may have a valid logical form but is wrong due to mistake in its reasoning
Formal fallacy
arguments that are falacious due to an error in their form or technical structure
An inductive conclusion is either...
a generalization or a prediction about a future case
An argument is inductively strong iff...
the truth of the premises would make the truth of the conclusion probable but not definite
Factors affecting inductive strength
sample size and bias
the doctrine that pleasure and pleasure alone is good. pleasure is the most important pursuite of mankind. all actions can be measured on the basis of how much pleasure and how little pain.
Utilitarianism and the principle of utility
the moral worth of an action is determined by its outcome. an act is right iff there is no other action that the agent could have done which had higher utility than the action performed
Benthams rule of utility
good is whatever brings the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people
Greatest happiness principle:
one must always act so as to produce the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people
Benthams measures of pleasure: intensity
how strong is the pleasure
how long will the pleasure last
how likely is it that the pleasure will occur
how soon will the pleasure occur
probability that the action will be followed by sensations of the same kind
probability that the pleasure will be followed by sensations of the opposite kind
how many people will be affected
Qualitative pleasure (mill)
there is not one universal pleasure. pleasures can be higher or lower. those who have experienced both tend to prefer one over the other
Mills test of competent judges
1. judges are those who have experienced both types of pleasure. 2. they would prefer x over y even if y were to be given at a higher frequency. 3. this x preference is shared by the majority of the judges. 4. if all these are true then x is the more desirable pleasure and is the best worth having.
Objection to Mills view
the swine objection: the utilitarian doctrine is unfit for humans because it recognizes no higher purpose to life than the mere pursuit of pleasure
Nozicks argument against hedonism
if hedonism is true then the best life would be a life lived entirely in the experience machine. but life lived in the EM is not the best life. therefore hedonism is not true
Act utilitarianism
judge actions in terms of the goodness of their consequences without reference to rules of action
Rule utilitarianism
moral actions are those which conform to the rules which lead to the greatest good
Desire satisfaction view
interest is a generic term covering many types of desires and preferences