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56 Cards in this Set

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What is logic?
Logic and critical thinking is the field that studies reasoning, specifically, how to distinguish good reasoning from bad
Why is it useful to study philosophy? (two reasons)
1. It enables us to learn more about our own language (ambiguity of different words and phrases)
2. It helps people reason better (learning the difference between good, bad and fallacious reasoning) in our everyday lives
What does an argument consist of? (two parts)
A premise and a conclusion
What is a premise?
What are some examples of premise indicators?
A reason that provides support or evidence for a conclusion. Can come before or after the conclusion. Is not always implicit. There can be multiple premises linked together on the way to the conclusion
"Because", "for the reason", "since" but are not always used
What is a conclusion?
What are some examples of conclusion indicators?
A statement for which reasons are given. Sometimes is not stated
"hence", "therefore", "it follows that", "in conclusion"
Inductive arguments
Are always either weak or strong
While it is always possible that the conclusion is wrong, focuses more on the strength of the argument and the degree in which the premises justify the conclusion
Deductive arguments
Is either valid or invalid
If the premises are true then the conclusion must be true
If valid can be sound or unsound
What are the four typical forms of inductive reasoning?
1. Generalization
very few As are also B
x is an A
x is probably not B
2. Predictions
In the past when I have done Y followed X
If I do X now, Y will likely follow
3. Casual references
People in this area often have characteristic C
People in this area have been exposed to D a lot
Exposure to D causes C
4. Analogies
Everything I have examined with characteristics A, B, C, D, and E is also a Q
t has characteristics A, B, C, D, and E
So t is also probably Q
Describe the distinction between higher and lower "levels" of induction
A higher level of induction uses refined judgement about an individual case when a generalization is used for example
What is a fallacie?
Mistakes we typically make in reasoning
Ad Hominem
"To the person/man". Instead of attacking a person's position or argument, the arguer attacks the person on irrelevant grounds
Appeal to Ignorance
Because something has not been proven true, it must be false (and vice versa)
Appeal to the People
The argue appeals to the popularity of an idea or of an attitude as a justification
The bandwagon effect
Appeal to Force
The premise, that somebody is powerful, does not warrant that the person/belief is correct
Straw Man
The arguer attacks a weaker argument/position (may be on purpose or because they misinterpreted the argument) that is not one their opponent is defending
Over-Generalization and Susceptibility to Counter-Example
Reaching conclusions based on small samples or stereotypes
One counter-example can serve as a refutation
Gamblers' Fallacies
Assuming that things will be the same or change because the future can be predicted from the past
"My number has got to come up soon!"
"If I bet more eventually I must win!"
Throwing Good Money (or Time) After Bad
Doing something that you won't enjoy because you already paid for it or put work into it, etc.
Questionable Analogy
Asserting that two objects, situations, or events are similar in certain aspects so therefore they must share a further characteristic when in fact they are not alike in relevant ways or that their similarity does not mean that they share the further characteristic
Inconsistency
Holding onto a premise or conclusion in one context that is incompatible with ones accepted in a different context
Mistaken premises
Equivocation and Ambiguity
An argument depending on the author's equivocation between two different senses or meanings of a word or phrase which makes the key premise false
Begging the Question
Circular reasoning
Instead of giving a reason that establishes the conclusion, the conclusion is simply assumed
The conclusion is also a premise and there is no good reason to accept the conclusion
Slippery Slope
If one takes a first step or two, then inevitably they will be led down a slippery slope to someplace they don't want to go, despite the lack of justification from the author
False Dilemma
The arguer unreasonably reduces the alternatives by arguing that there are only two possibilities when there actually are others
Red Herring
The arguer diverts attention away from the real issues onto an irrelevant side issue, ignoring the opponent's argument altogether
False Accusation of a Fallacy
It is often controversial whether or not a fallacy is really present
What is the difference between informal fallacies and formal fallacies?
The correctness of formal fallacies is determined by the argument alone
Informal fallacies depend of specific content or meaning of premises and conclusion, etc.
What makes a deductive argument valid?
The premises (if true) establish the conclusion with certainty
It is impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false
What makes a deductive argument sound?
If the argument is valid and all of the premises are true
It is unsound if at least one premise is false
What do the four classical forms of categorical do?
What are they
Express the relations among classes or groups of things
1. Form A: All As are Bs
2. Form E: No As are Bs
3. Form I: Some A is a B
4. Form O: Some A are not a B
What are the two differences between the four categorical statements?
Describe them
Quality and Quantity
Quality asks whether or not the statement affirms or negates class membership
Quality asks whether or not the statement says something about every member of the subject class
Describe each of the four categorical classes in terms of their quality and quantity
A form is universal affirmative
E is universal negative
I is particular affirmative
O is particular negative
What are the terms used to describe the relationships between the categorical classes? (four terms)
1. Contradiction
2. Contraries
3. Subcontraries
4. subalterns
What makes two statements contradictory?
If each of them have the opposite "truth value"
What makes two statements contraries?
When both statements cannot be true but can be anything else
What makes two statements sub-contraries?
When both statements cannot both be false but can be anything else
What makes two statements subalterns?
When one statement being true requires that the second is true while the second's statement being false means the first must be false
What do the four relationships between categorical classes make up when summarized?
The traditional square of opposition
Describe complement
"Non-A" refers to the complement fo the class of As
Describe conversion
Switching the subject and predicate terms so the converse of "all A is B" is "All B is A"
What are the two differences between the four categorical statements?
Describe them
Quality and Quantity
Quality asks whether or not the statement affirms or negates class membership
Quality asks whether or not the statement says something about every member of the subject class
Describe each of the four categorical classes in terms of their quality and quantity
A form is universal affirmative
E is universal negative
I is particular affirmative
O is particular negative
What are the terms used to describe the relationships between the categorical classes? (four terms)
1. Contradiction
2. Contraries
3. Subcontraries
4. subalterns
What makes two statements contradictory?
If each of them have the opposite "truth value"
What makes two statements contraries?
When both statements cannot be true but can be anything else
What makes two statements sub-contraries?
When both statements cannot both be false but can be anything else
What makes two statements subalterns?
When one statement being true requires that the second is true while the second's statement being false means the first must be false
What do the four relationships between categorical classes make up when summarized?
The traditional square of opposition
Describe complement
"Non-A" refers to the complement fo the class of As
Describe conversion
Switching the subject and predicate terms so the converse of "all A is B" is "All B is A"
Describe contraposition
Combining conversion and complements
"All A is B" has its contrapositive "All non-B is non-A"
Describe observation
Reverse the quality and substitute the compliment for the 2nd class
"All A is B" = "No A is non-B"
Describe the disjunctive form
Does not assert either option but instead at least one or the other is true
Premise 1: Either P or Q
Premise 2: Not Q
Conclusion: P
Describe the conditional form
If one thing happens or is, another thing will happen or is
"If P then Q"
Modus Ponens
Premise 1: If P than Q
Premise 2: P
Conclusion: Q
Modus Tollens
Premise 1: If P than Q
Premise 2: Not Q
Conclusion: Not P