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24 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
A claim is ambiguous if more than one meaning can be assigned but the particular meaning it should be assigned is not madde clear by context. Example: I know a little Greek.
an argument exhibits amphiboly if it tries to justify its conclusion by relying on an ambiguity in sentence structure. Example: he saw the farmer with binoculars.
Statement spoken in a tone of voice not intended for, certain words are wrongly stressed, certain words are taken out of context and are given emphasis they were not meant to have.
Emotionally Charged Language
opinions that build on such language attempt to distract us from the fact that no argument has been presented.
using highly emotional subject in a matter-of-fact voice.
Appeal to Force
use of threat to coerce opponents
Appeal to pity
"you should accept my conclusion out of pity" The argument is addressed to our sense of mercy.
Appeal to the people
Appeal to authority
carries connotations of shame as well as modesty, emphasizing how we may accept a false conclusion because we are ashamed to dispute authority.
Appeal to Ignorance
follows the assumption that the inability to demonstrate that a statement is true should constitute proof that the contradiction of the statement is supposedly true. This appeal tries to establish an affirmative conclusion by stating our lack of knowledge as support for such conclusion.
Abusive ad hominem
attempt to lower our esteem for a person by abusing or insulting that person.
Circumstantial ad hominem
attack is directed at a person's motives or at such circumstances as one's profession, political views, social status, or gender.
tu quoque
try to justify what we are doing by pointing out that our opponents or others engage in questionable behavior as well.
given when someone ignores an opponents actual position and presents in its place a distorted or misrepresented version of that position. now, this distroted position will be easier to refute.
Missing the point
this arguement actually proves a different conclusion
Red Herring
the arguer tries to draw attention away from an issue by raising some other, seemingly related issue.
Begging the Question
either a key premise is left out or the conclusion is restated as a premise or by circular reasoning. instead of offering proof for a conclusion, the argument simply reasserts the conclusion in another form.
Complex Question
committed when a single question is asked that is really 2 or more questions and a single answer is then applied to both questions.
Sweeping generalization
committed when a general rule is applied to a specific case to which the rule is not applicable because of the special features of that case.
Hasty generalization
an isolated or exceptional case is used as teh basis for a general conclusion which is unwarranted.
False dilemma
x is true because either x is true or y is true, and y isn't. said when x and y could both be false.
False Cause (post hoc)
reasoning that x caused y simply because y occurred after x or around the same time
Slippery Slope
objects to a position on the ground that the position, if taken, will set off a chain reaction that ultimately will lead to some undesirable consquence.
False analogy
arises when the comparison is an erroneous one that distorts the facts in the case being argued.