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29 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
define Philosophy
love of wisdom. Philia (love) Sophia - (Wisdom)
define metaphysics
the branch of philosophy that attempts to understand the fundamental nature of all reality, whether visible or invisible
define epistemology
is the branch of philosophy which studies the origin, nature, and scope of knowledge.
define axiology
is the study of value or quality
name Socrates 3 arguements for not escaping Athens
1.)Destroying the state (in disobeying the law, we destroy the state)
2.)The analogy between the state and ones parents. (since the state provides a social environment for us, we must respect and obey it like our parents.)
3.)Social Construct: social living is a cooperative arrangement in which there are enormous benefits, and in return we must agree to support its institutions to make those benefits possible.
3 arguements for the existence of God.
1.)First Cause
2.)Necessary Being
3.)Intelligent Design
First Cause
The idea that God was the first cause in the long chain of causes. Everything that exists must have a cause
Necessary Being
the idea that the universe is not self-subsufficient, therefore it cannot be sustained by itself. It must be sustained by something else.
Paley's watch analogy
the universe consists of parts framed andput together for a purpose.
natural vs. moral evil
Moral evil is the evil that results from the actions of human beings (e.g. murder, negligence).
Natural evil is all other evil (e.g. natural disasters).
defense vs. theodicy
Defense: God is logically consistent with evil
Theodicy: how evil fits into God's plan
the problem of life after death
1.)near death experiences
-- influence of drugs
-Oxygen deprivation
-commonplace dreaming and hallucinating
immortality of the soul and bodily resurrection
immortal soul: simplicity of the soul (destroying a shirt)
bodily: (see 43)
reincarnation
- there werent enough people alive in generations before us
psychic communication with the dead
cold reading: the psychic appears to produce information when information is being provided by the client
hot reading: when the reader has advanced information
Hume's arguement against miracles
he asks himself whether it is more probable for the person decieve, or that the person to be deceived.
the problem of personal identity - 3
1.)Same Body Theory
2.)Memory-Continuous
3.)Bundle Theory
Same Body Theory
a person who lives at an earlier time and a person who lives at a later time are the same person, if and only if they have the same body.
Memory continuous thoery
a person who lives at an earlier time and a person who lives at a later time are the same person, if and only if they have the same body and if he can remember what was done, felt, thought
Bundle Theory
your mental life consists of a bundle of perceptions, thoughts, memories, emotions and such other things which are connected with one another in various ways
buddhist theory of the 5 aggregates
Body:we are so busy worrying about our bodies it become a prison
feelings:feelings come and go so dont be trapped by them
perception: our ideas change due to emotions and circumstances. dont be trapped
Volitional activities: we are trapped in egocentricity in activities
conciousness: we ourselves are the only ones who sense the world around us in the way that we do.. therefore we are trapped in our own consciousness.
Inter-being
there is no separately existing self. I am connected to all things in the world. Mindfullness.
mind body problem
the belief that events in the brain cause mental experiences. belives that there is a specific part of the brain where this exists
the piecemeal replacement
suppose they had a microchip tha would replace diseased parts of your brain. would you still be a concious being?
dualism
the belief that mind and body are separate. Physical and mental facts. -- the problem is to explain the nature of the mental facts and link them with the physical facts.
3 types of materialism
behaviorism: behaviour is refereced to thoughts and feelings (A: you can be concious without behaving)
mind-brain identity:inputs from the world result in output
functionalism:the mind functions for the specific purpose of feelings, emotions, etc.
intentionality
mental states are about things instead of actually being. (you can think of Boston, but not actually be in Boston)
subjectivity
experieces that have a subjective character: something that is to see that color, or taste that taste.
the chinese room argument
to have a mind a system must have more than a syntax (rules) it must have a semantics (meaning)