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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Similarities between Aquinas and Aristotle's conception of the human being
The human being is:
composite of form and matter
human soul and human body
all knowledge begins with the body
Passive Component of Virtue
The natural aptitude for virtue we are born with. We have the talent for becoming virtuous. It is a divine gift from God.
Active Component of Virtue
It is our own responsibility to study and practice virtues that involve habituation and perfect ourselves using our God given gifts
What do passive and active virtue contribute?
Passive and active parts of virtue help us to obtain our ultimate purpose: the relationship between us and the final cause.
Parts of Virtue
1. controlled by reason
2. operation of the will with reason
3. Study involves knowledge of acquisition
4. Study is assimilation of the "formal element"
Perfect virtues ultimate final cause
the good
Perfect virtue
perfect virtue is the choice of means in accord with right reason in order to achieve instinct.
appetitive reason
Rational Appetite
operation of reason w/ the will
higher appetite: one of the good
Appetitive reason
the will is higher appetite, an appetite of the good.
Animal Appetite
animal instincts are the lower appetite
they are NOT controlled by reason
easily angered
quick tempered
A desire to seek what is suitable and avoid what is harmful
Relationship between will and reason
The will is an appetite for good which means final causality
reason contributes to deliberation
Why are we free?
because of our power to deliberate
The Process by which free choice is performed
1. the will desires the good
2. reason selects one particular good from among many options
-we use reason to select
-we may reason well or poorly
-we are advised to learn to reason through studies
3. reason councils the will on which object to select
4. the will physically moves us to the object selected
Why other animals are not free like human beings are free
Animals are controlled by their instincts and do not have the power to deliberate.
animal instincts are irascible and concupisant
Descartes Med.1
Why he engages in meditations
general method for initial standard for certainty
-the existence of the outside world(the sum of all sensible objects)
-The truthfulness of math/geometry
things that we know to be true
Geometric Method
(part of med 1)
Always begin with an axiom
Descartes Med 2
What is known with certainty and why
-his own existence (I know that I exist because I cannot doubt this if I try to)
-His essence is to be thinking thing
(Part of med 2)
The essence of physical material objects
Not determined by intellect of the senses

It is an intelligible and not sensual property.
Wax Example
1. There are two substances: Mind and Body
2. Wax melts and transforms sensible properties but one property remains the same: extension
3. Absent of these sensible properties, the object is still extended
4. Descartes does not know if physical objects are real but states that: all physical objects if they exist have the characteristic of being extended
Descartes Med 3
Proof of Gods existence and why God is not an evil deceiver
Med 3
Proof of Gods existence
Idea: God is an entity, all powerful, all knowing, good, and does not lack anything
Cause: Parents-But where did they get the idea?
Mind: I am finite and am not capable of being the cause of something infinite. Only an infinite thing can be the cause of an infinite idea.
God univerally built it in us as humans
Med 3
Why God is not an evil deceiver
A good entity must exist. God can't be infinitely good and tricking me. If God were deceiving us it would be malicious and would be in conflit wiht his goodness.
Nature of mind according to a Buddhist perspective
1. Identity is emergent and contingent (dependent on something else)
2. There is awareess of constant change in our thoughts
3. There is not any "Thinker entity" independent from these thoughts
4. If we attend to what is found in sense experience we find no experience entity
Buddhist and Descartes Compared
Claim leaping from thoughts to thinker can't be justified
we can't isolate any one thing that remains unchanged.
Nature of mind according to Descartes
Descartes believes notion of mind as a substance.
information available to the sense changes
Nature of the mind is not subject to change in the way other things are subject to change.
taking something that is fluid or changing and supposing it to be something solid or fixed. It is always in the process of doing. Personal identity.
good internal to the human (Buddhism divinity)
study of rules in which physical world operates
that which persists through change dealing wiht obj. that cannot be accessed with senses.
claims that at least some kinds of knowledge are arrived at with out the use of senses. some find truths are known through reason alone.
Aquinas argues that
1. we are born perfect
2. the active component of the HB provides us with the natural aptitude for perfection
3. the will is determiend to pursue the good
Descartes argues that
his esence is a thinking thing