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13 Cards in this Set

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Why does the Meditator need to doubt his present opinions?
The Meditator needs to doubt to sweep away his foundations and principles of knowledge, so that he can reconstruct it on more certain grounds
What is the Dream Argument?
The Dream Argument suggests the possibility of universal dreaming - that although there is waking experience, we can never know which moments are dreams and which are awake.
What is the Evil Demon Argument?
Suggests that all we know is false, as we could be deceived by an all-powerful Evil Demon. As a result, we cannot place any trust in our senses.
What is the one thing that is certain?
Our existence - the cogito - is the one thing that is certain. We cannot doubt the cogito, because to doubt is to think, and to think is to exist.
What is the Wax Argument?
The Wax Argument shows that we can still identify a piece of wax despite its changing qualities because we understand it with our minds rather than identify it with our senses. It proves that the mind is a better tool for "knowing" than the senses are.
What do the senses perceive?
A disconnected jumble of information
What does the intellect do with the information perceived by the senses?
The intellect helps us understand the information perceived by the senses.
The Meditator is certain he is a thinking thing because he ______ and ______ perceived this fact.
Clearly and distinctly
The Meditator cannot be certain unless all __________ and __________ perceptions can be certain
Clear and distinct
What conclusion can be drawn from clear and distinct perceptions?
Clear and distinct perceptions must be true.
To assure himself that he is not deceived, what must the Meditator do?
To assure himself that he is not deceived, the Meditator must inquire into the nature of God.
What are the two different types of thoughts?
Ideas, and volitions / emotions / judgments towards the those ideas.
What are the three sources of ideas?
1) Innate - we are born with them
2) Adventitious - coming from our sensory perceptions
3) Invented - we made them up