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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Simple and Complex Ideas (Locke)
British Empiricists

Locke believed that knowledge could be explained by discovering the raw materials out of which it was made.
--Sensation and Reflection--
Simple-constitue the chief source of the raw materials which pass through the senses single file, also simple ideas.
Complex-compounded simple ideas. Mind (1)joins ideas, (2)brings ideas together but holds them separate(3)and Abstracts
Labor Theory of Value (Locke/Marx)
British Empiricists

Since mans labor is his own, whatever he transforms from its original condition by his own labor becomes his because his labor is mixed with those things.
Locke-justified private property and inheritance
Marx-defined relationship and cause of alienation of the worker.
Surplus Value (Marx)
Marx does not weigh-in on the morality of this issue; however, in the instance of the capitalist epoch, the bourgeoisie (owners, capitalists) are still getting a greater share of the fruits of production than their contribution warrants, while the lower class is heavily exploited. The means by which the proletariat is exploited is surplus value. That is, the owners can sell the product for more than they pay for the labor to produce it. It is important to note that Marx felt this would lead to the apocalyptical global revolution of sorts, due to the ever-worsening condition of the worker.
Five Epochs (Marx)
His concepts of the five historical epochs, which reflected the condition of material order (the critical reality, or substructure) of those particular times was a new way to look upon humanity. He postulated that each of these five phases of human history (primitive communal, slave, feudal, capitalist, and finally the yet to come socialist) was merely a reflection of how the material of the world, the only consistent reality, was distributed among the people during the respective period.
Association of Ideas (Hume)
British Empiricists

We see things that happen next to each other (contiguity); we see that often one thing happens before another (priority in time); and we see that some things always follow others (constant conjunction). We conclude from all of this that things are necessarily connected--and that's our big mistake. Our minds associate ideas with each other, and we think that those things are, therefore, related to each other in the world outside of our mind. We're pushing the envelope too far when we do that, in Hume’s view. And we are claiming much more for the rather limited information our senses give us than can possibly be justified.
Categorical Imperative (Kant)
the opposite of a hypothetical imperative
a rule which requires that any action we take be subject to the stipulation that it could be the universal rule that everyone should take that action in a similar situation.
Categories of Intuition (Kant)
The mind synthesizes and attempts to unify our experiences. These experiences are always seen through the a priori of space and time, intuitions which are immediately encountered. There are also categories which deal specifically with the way the mind uses experience, such as quantity, quality, relation modality.
Hypothetical Imperative (Kant)
Do A in order to Achieve B.

A HI conditionally demands performance of an action for the sake of some other end or purpose.
Phenomenal Reality (Kant)
Phenomenal Reality is the world as we experience it.

The Kantian noumenal or phenomenological? James considered such theories only if they will make a difference one way or another in the way you live your life. If you cannot connect with a theory, don’t be bothered with it.
Noumenal Reality (Kant)
Purely Intelligible, nonsensual reality. Trancendental ideas of the self, the cosmos, and God. They correspond to no object of our experience. Not a matter of intuition only a matter of reason.
Cash Value (James)
theory regarding the acceptance of an idea or system of thought. He meant the phrase “cash value" to be taken metaphorically, not literally. In other words, we should accept an idea we are asked to believe, James would say, only if it seems to have some positive value for us, i.e. there must be a pay off for believing it.
Truth happens to an idea (James)
And on the very important matters of life, like deciding on the existence of God, James argues that we have a right to the will to believe--even in the absence of scientific evidence.

Religious questions, especially, William James submits, tend to run ahead of the evidence. "The truth is out there," James believes.

Some truths, however, will never be found unless an individual has the will to believe in them and find them true. Other truths are actually created by human beings who discover them within themselves and then take appropriate action to make them true. So, James concludes, "Truth happens to an idea."
Three Stages (Kierkegaard)
Aesthetic, Ethical, Religious.

People, driven by anxiety, elevate from one stage to the next to fulfill their essential obligations.

Ethical Stage: Person has achieved reason and some moral obligation through commitment.

Religious State: Person realized that he could not ever meet the requirements of moral law, and reaches level through a leap of faith.
Aesthetic Stage (Kierkegaard)
Stage at which man behaves according to his impulses and emotions. This is the first stage, and in order to achieve genuine fulfillment one must feel the anxiety of suspecting that life offers much more than sensual pleasure.
Leap of Faith (Kierkegaard)
Religious State: Person realized that he could not ever meet the requirements of moral law, and reaches level through a leap of faith.
Will to Believe (James)
James combats scientific views and argues that we may believe in God based solely on feelings. The question of God's existence seems to be genuinely neutral. According to James, proofs and disproofs of God seems to be equally shaky. James lists three conditions that determine when emotionally based beliefs are justified.

The beflief must be a live option. This is the conception that we are psychologically capable of believing. Also, the chioce must either accept or reject a conception. He said there is no in between. Lastly, the issue must be momentous of major concern rather than trivial.
Dasein (Heidegger)
I am being here. You are being here. We are conscious subjects aware of our consciousness. Our understanding of the world is something we have shaped ourselves.
This is why it is necessary to take responsiblility for our lives.
Condemned to be free (Sartre)
Man is "condemned to be free," in Sartre's view, and each person can make of this freedom what he will. Expanded into the community when deciding that moral decisions must be made as if for all men.

This awesome reality means that man must suffer with an overwhelming sense of abandonment, knowing that there is no direction or purpose to be found in a faith in anything outside of the self, either in a God or in other people. For Sartre, this condition also leaves man with an overwhelming sense of responsibility. The only meaning and purpose that exists is the meaning and purpose that each individual using his consciousness and will forms.
Existence precedes essence (Sartre)
Based on the assumption that there is no God, then there is no given human nature, since there was no one to give it. Unlike the knife which was concieved prior to its existence, Humans existed before the defined essence of Humanity. This places the responsibility of existence on each human, if human nature was fixed, we would not be responsible for our actions.
Fidelity (Marcel)
The ultimate character of a persons relationships involves the element of fidelity. Fidelity is the moral relationship unique to people, including committment. Fidelity requires faith in a divine or mysterious order.