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56 Cards in this Set

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Define Pharmokinetics
The study of drug movement through the body
What are the four basic pharmokinetic processes?
Absorprion, Distribution, Metabolism, Execretion
Define Absorprion
The movement of the drug from its side of administration into the blood
Define distribution
dRUG MOVEMENT TO THE INTERSTITIAL SPACE OF TISSUES AND FROM THERE INTO CELLS
Deine Execretion
The movemet of drugs and their metabolites out of the body
What are the three ways that the knowledge of a pharmokinetics may benifet the nurse?
-Checking physicians orders
-Increase job satasfaction
-Nurses will be less likely to commit medical errors
What does the rate of absorption determine?
How soon the effects will begin
What does the ammount of absorption help determine?
How intense effects will be
Name five factors affecting drug absorption
Rate of dissolution, surface area, blood flow, lipid solubility,and ph partioning
How does the rate of dissolution affect drug absorption?
Before a drug can be absorbed, it must first be dissolved, so the rate of disssolution helps determine the rate of absorption.
Hwo does the surface area available affect drug absorption?
The larger the area, the faster absorption will be.
How does blood flow affect drug absor[tion?
Drugs are absorbed more rapidly from sites where blood flow is high
Explain Why lipid soluble drugs are absorbed more rapidly than drugs whos lipid solubility is low.
Lipid soluble drugs can readily cross the membranes that seperate them from the blood, where as drugs of low lipid solubility cannot.
Define enteral
Via the GI Tract
What is the literal definition of parenteral?
Outside the GI Tract
What is the Common definition of parenteral?
By injection
Explain whey when a drug is administered IV there are no barriers to absorption and the absorption is both instantaneous and complete.
Goes directly into the blood, there is no barrier to absorption.
What are four advantages of intravenous administration?
Rapid onset, Control, Use of large fluid volumes, use of irritant drugs.
Describe Rapid onset
Because it is absorbed direscly into the blood the action of the drug is rapid
Describe control
Control over the levels of drug in the blood:Dosing control.
What are the 5 disadvantages of Intravenous administration.
-High cost, difficulty, and inconvenience
-Irreversibility
-Fluid overload
-Infection
-Embolism (Contaminate)
How significant is the barrier to absorption when using the intramuscular route of administration?
No significant barrier
What two factors can affect the rate of absorption when giving a drug by the IM route?
1. Water solubility of the drug- drugs that are highly soluble in water will absorb rapidly. 10-30 mins
2. Blood flow to the site of injection- Absorption is rapid where blood flow is high
Name two advantages to using the IM route Instead of the IV route.
1. Can be used for parenteral administration of a poorly soluble drug.
2. Use it to administer depot preperations(preperations in which the frug is absorbed slowly over an extended period of time.)
Name and explain two disadvantages to using the IM route instead of the IV route or the oral route.
1. Discomfort and inconvenience
2. Can cause local tissue injury and possible nerve damage.
How do the advantages and disadvantages of the subcutaneous route compare to the Intramuscular route?
Fill
What is the major barrier to absorption when drugs are given orally?
GI Epithellium
Name 6 factors that can affect the rate and extent of absorption of drugs administered orally.
-Solubility and stability of the drug
-Gastric and intestinal PH
-Gastric emptying time
-Food in the GI tract
-Coadministration of other drugs
-Special coatings on the drug preperations
When a drug is swallowed and absorbed inthe GI tract, what organ must it pass through in order to enter the general circulation?
Liver
Name the two major advantages of the Po route over the IV,IM, SuBQ routes.
Easy, convenient, inexpensive, safer than injection, Inducing emesis, inducing catharsis, preventing absorption into the blood
What are the 4 disadantages to using the oral route of drug administration?
Variability, Inactivation, patient requirements, local irritation
Describe variability
Difficult to control the onset, intensity and duration of responses
Describe inactivation
Enzymes, acid
Patient requirements
Psychosis, seizure, obstinancy, nausea
Local irritation
Of the GI tract- can cause discomfort, nausea, and vomiting
Define Chemical equivelance
If they contain the same ammount of the identical chemical compound
Define Bioavalibility
If the drug they contain is absorbed at the same rate to the same extent
How may 2 tablets that contain the same drug differ?
In their rates of disintegration and dissolution, causing differences in bioavalibility (onsed and intensity of effects)
Name the 2 general purposes for the use of enteric coated tablets.
Protect drugs from the pepsin and acid in the stomache, and protect the stomache from the drugs that cause gastric discomfort
Describe how sustained release capsules work to vary the release of the drug through the day.
Because some spheres dissolve more slowly than others, the drug is released steadily throughout the day
Name two advantages for the use of sustained release capsules
To permit a reduction in the number of daily doses, and producing relatively steady drug levels over an extended time.
Name six additional routes of administration.
Topically, inhaled, rectal suppository, vaginal suppository, direct injection into a specific site, transdermal.
Compare topical and transdermal
Topiical is applied to surfaces for local therapy, transdermal is absorbed into the systemic circulation through the skin
What are examples of direct injection into specific sites?
Intracardiac, intraarticular, intrathecal
Define distribution
The movement of drugs throughout the body
List three major factofs affecting drug distribution
Blood flow to the tissues, the ability of a drug to exit the vascular system, the ability of a drug to enter cells
Name tow pathological conditions where treatments is difficult because of poor blood flow to the tissues
Abscesses, tumors
Describe how drugs usually leave a capillary to center the interstitial space in the tissue
fill
Name two organs in the body where drugs must cross a cell membrane to pass through the capillary walls
fill
If a drug can b ind easily to albumin (a plasma protein) in the blood, how can this affect the ammount of drug avaliable to the desired site of action?
fill
If a large percentage of molecules of a certain drug is bound to albumin molecules in the bloodstream and another drug knocks a lot of the molecules off and takes their place, what potentially could happen?
May not get out of the blood into the tissue
Define Metabolism
fill
What is another word for metabolism?
Biotrransformation
Where does most drug metabolism take place?
Liver
List six possible consequences of drug metabolism that have therapeutic significance
Accelerated renal drug execretion, drug inactivation, increased therapeutic action, activation of prodrugs, increased or decreased toxcicity
What is the most imporntant consequence of drug metabolism?
Promotion of renal drug execution