Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/15

Click to flip

15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Ampicillin
Drug of choice for enterococcus
[PO/IV],
Meropenem
Carbapenem
Broadest spectrum β-lactam class
Covers gram-positive, gram-negative and anaerobes
Very useful for “mixed” infections
Can lower seizure threshold
Aztreonam
Monobactam
Narrow spectrum agent
Only covers gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas
“safer” version of aminoglycosides
tobramycin
Aminoglycosides
Often used with cell-wall active agent to gain entry to bacterial cell
Spectrum of activity: gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas
Side effects: nephrotoxicity [more common when given with vancomycin], ototoxicity, enhanced neuromuscular blockade
Chloramphenicol
PO, IV
Broad spectrum of activity: gram-positive, gram-negative, anaerobes
Side effects:
Grey Baby Syndrome [Toxicity of antibiotic in newborn, because of lack of necessary liver enzymes to metabolize drug. Drug accumulates, causing hypotension, cyanosis and often death]
Dose related bone marrow suppression
Idiosyncratic aplastic anemia
Reserved for life-threatening infections
azithromycin
Macrolides
gram-positive, gram-negative, atypical pathogens
Clinical uses: Respiratory tract infections, Chlamydia STDs, MAC infections [AIDS patients]
Side effects: GI upset [MAJOR], metallic taste [biaxin]
Drug interactions: CYP450 inhibitor [erythromycin > clarithromycin> azithromycin]
Clindamycin
Very active against gram-positive bacteria and anaerobes; no gram-negative activity
Clinical uses: Cellulitis in penicillin-allergic patient, toxic shock syndrome [higher doses], osteomyelitis
Great penetration into bone, teeth
Side effects: GI, pseudomembraneous colitis- C. difficile
Vancomycin
Not a β-lactam but a polypeptide
How it works: prevents polymerization of linear peptidoglycans [alanine-alanine]
Spectrum of activity – gram-positive ONLY
Drug of choice for MRSA
PO vancomycin CANNOT be used to treat systemic infections
Side effects:
Nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity [more common when given with aminoglycoside]
Red man’s syndrome [rate of infusion]
Dosed via pharmacokinetics/monitor vanco levels
neomycin
Aminoglycosides PO
Often used with cell-wall active agent to gain entry to bacterial cell
Spectrum of activity: gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas
Side effects: nephrotoxicity [more common when given with vancomycin], ototoxicity, enhanced neuromuscular blockade
clarithromycin
Macrolides
gram-positive, gram-negative, atypical pathogens
Clinical uses: Respiratory tract infections, Chlamydia STDs, MAC infections [AIDS patients]
Side effects: GI upset [MAJOR], metallic taste [biaxin]
Drug interactions: CYP450 inhibitor [erythromycin > clarithromycin> azithromycin]
Metronidazole [Flagyl
PO, IV
How it works: Bactericidal; Taken up by anaerobic bacteria, disrupts DNA structure → cell death
Spectrum of activity: Gram-positive and gram-negative anaerobes ONLY
Clinical uses: Drug of choice for C. difficile diarrhea; used for anaerobic infections, bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, Crohn’s disease
Side effects: GI, metallic taste, drug-induced seizures, peripheral neuropathy [rare], disfulfiram reaction with alcohol
Nitromidazoles
Rifabutin, rifampin
Inhibit DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, prevents transcription into mRNA and protein
Spectrum of activity: Very active against gram-positive bacteria, some gram-negative activity
Clinical uses: Tuberculosis, serious gram-positive infections [MRSA], MAC infection [AIDS]
Side effects: Red discoloration of body fluids, GI, hepatotoxicity
Potent inducer of CYP450 [rifabutin to lesser extent]
Rifamycins
Amikacin
Aminoglycosides
Often used with cell-wall active agent to gain entry to bacterial cell
Spectrum of activity: gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas
Side effects: nephrotoxicity [more common when given with vancomycin], ototoxicity, enhanced neuromuscular blockade
cipro
Fluoroquinolones Old
Inhibit DNA synthesis by inhibiting DNA gyrase → “CIDAL
Better gram-negative coverage, weak gram-positive activity
pneumonia, UTIs, travelers diarrhea [cipro], osteomyelitis [great bone penetration], “mixed” infections [moxifloxacin
gentamicin
Aminoglycosides
Often used with cell-wall active agent to gain entry to bacterial cell
Spectrum of activity: gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas
Side effects: nephrotoxicity [more common when given with vancomycin], ototoxicity, enhanced neuromuscular blockade