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22 Cards in this Set

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Disrupts cross linkage of peptidoglycan polymers
Penicillin
Used to increase the spectrum of activity of various penicillins
Beta-lactamase inhibitors
Used to treat primarily Gram +
-Suseptible to beta-lactamase
Natural Penicillins
Penicillin G
Similar to natural penicillins plus are resistant to penicillinase
-Widely used against penicillinase producing Staphylococci
B-lactamase resistant Penicillin
Methicillin
Improved activity against Gram + and - relative to natural penicillins.
-Suseptible to B-lactamase
Extended spectrum Penicillin
Amoxicillin
Adverse effects of Penicillin
Allergies
Cross-reactance with most B-lactam antibiotics
Effective against penicillinase producse S. aureus
Used in patients who exhibit delayed penicillin allergy
Range in spectrum of action (across generations)
Cephalosporins
Cefazolin (Primarily Gram+)
Adverse effects of Cephalosporins
Nephrotoxicity
Hypersensitivity Reactions
Cross-reactions b/t cephalosporins and penicillins --> contraindicated in those with penicillin anaphylaxis
Effective against Gram - bacteria (including those that produce B-lactamase)
Patients who are allergice to Penicillins and Cephalosporins are generally ok with these
Monobactams
Very broad spectrum of activity (Both Gram + and -)
Very resistant to B-lactamase
Carbapenems
Non B-lactam Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitor
Active only against Gram +
Useful for treatment of MRSA
Used to treat staph. infections in those allergic to penicillin and cephalosporins
Vancomycin
Prevents translocation of tRNA from the A site to the P site
Extended spectrum
Very active against Gram + and some Gram -
BACTERIOSTATIC
**Used to replace B-lactam antibiotics for allergic individuals
-Resistance: Macrolide efflux pump, hydrolysis of drug, modification of ribosomal subunit
Macrolides
Clarithromycin
Broad spectrum active against Gram + and -
BACTERIOSTATIC
-Resistance: reduced permeability of cell membrane, hydrolysis of drug, modification of ribsomal subunit
Clindamycin
GI disturbances are fairly frequent
Antibiotic-induced diarrhea in up to 20% of patients
Clindamycin
Bind to 30s and directly blocks the binding of tRNA to the acceptor site
Broad spectrum
Very active against Gram + and -
BACTERIOSTATIC
**Resistance: Efflux pumps
ONE OF THE MOST LIKELY ANTIBIOTICS TO CAUSE A SUPERINFECTION
Tetracyclines
Inhibits bone growth
Permanently discolors teeth
Superinfection
-Broad Spectrum
-Orally administered
-Incompletely absorbed
Adverse effects Tetracyclines
BACTERICIDAL
Inhibits ribosomal function by blocking initiation of subunits and translocation.
Causes miscoding in peptide chain
Most effective against Gram -, limited activity against Gram +
Commonly administered w/ cell wall inhibitors (B-lactam)
Aminoglycosides
Auditory/vestibular toxicity almost always
Nephrotoxicity (8-20%)
Neuromuscular Blockade
Adverse Effects of Aminoglycosides
Inhibition of DNA integrity
Prodrug
BACTERICIDAL
Concentration-dependent
Active against obligate anaerobes only
Active against both Gram + and -
Used to treat antibiotic-induced diarrhea
Metroidazole
Inhibition of DNA transcription
Inhibits DNA gyrase
BATERICIDAL
Can treat eukaryotic bacteria (no DNA gyrase) with high doses
Most effective orally admin. drugs for a wide variety of infections (UTI & Traveler's diarrhe)
Quinolones
Can destroy cartilage in young people
Not used in children under 17 or during pregnancy
Quinolones
Suseptible to B-lactamase
Natural and Extended Spec. Penicillin
Cephalosporins