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15 Cards in this Set

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what are the aminoglycosides
Aminoglycosides:

Streptomycin
Gentamicin
Tobramycin
Kanamycin
Amikacin
Neomycin
Netilmicin
what are the tetracyclines
Tetracyclines:

Chlortetracycline
Oxytetracycline
Tetracycline
Demeclocycline
Methacycline
Doxycycline
Minocycline
Aminoglycosides are what kind of Ab
broad spectrum Ab
Tetracyclines are what kind of Ab
broad spectrum Ab
Chloramphenicol is what kind of Ab
broad spectrum Ab
do aminoglycosides enter the CNS
Very very poorly absorbed because they are very polar. Very hard for don’t penetrate CNS
how do you administer aminoglycosides
Very very poorly absorbed because they are very polar. Very hard for them to cross membranes. Never given orally. Has to be parentally (IV/IM) or topically
are aminoglycosides biotransformed
no unchanged drug appears in the urine. Kidney is king. 99% handled by kidney (glomerulor filtration). eliminated entirely by the kidney. One of major toxicities is nephrotoxicity
where do aminoglycosides distribute
usually confined to the extracellular fluid
inside the cell where do aminoglycosides bind
30s ribosomal subunit (cidal)
inside the cell where do tetracyclines bind
30s ribosomal subunit (static)
how do aminoglycosides kill bacteria
30s ribosomal binidng = inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis (ie no initiation & misreading of mRNA template = abnormal proteins formed & cause structural changes in bacterial membranes which may cause the bactericidal effect
how do tetracyclines "static" bacteria
they have the same mechanisms as aminoglycosides except they don't cause structural changes in bacterial membranes
how are the structural changes in bacterial membranes caused by aminoglycosides happen
abnormal proteins are formed caused by misreading of mRNA which sets up pores in membranes and allows a lot of the drug to get inside. They ultimately disrupt the membrane as well = cidal
in general what are aminoglycosides active against
aerobic (not anaerobic) gram (-) bacilli. they are also active against staphylococci (aerobic , +) and certain mycobacteria (aerobic, acid fast)