Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the three major regions why drugs are administered parenterally?
1.) patient may not be able to take the drug orally due to vomiting, or if he/she is in a comatose/unconscious state.

2.)a drug is not available in an oral form because many drugs are destroyed in the stomach.

3.) an emergency situation may require immediate need for the drug in the system of the patient.
Two major advantages of parenteral administration of drugs:
1.) the onset of action is more rapid than oral administration.

2.) absorption of medication is more predictable than oral administration.
4 major disadvantages of parenteral drug administration are:
1.) risk of infection by puncturing the skin with a contaminated needle.

2.) Once administered, the drug cannot be removed like it can orally by induced vomiting.

3.) pain and psychological agitation for some patients.

4.) meds must be sterile prior to administration.
What are the 2 basic parts of the syringe?
1.) barrel - a calibrated tube, tapered at one end to allow for the attachment of a needle.

2.) plunger - contains a lip or a flat disc at one end and a cone-shaped rubber piston at the other.
What are the two basic parts of the needle?
1.) hub - is used to attach the needle to the syringe

2.) shaft - usually metal and is coated with a sterile silicone coating for ease of insertion. It has a bevel tip.
What are the two numbers that designate the size of a syringe?
1.) guage - diameter of needle bore ranges from 27 - 13

2.) length - measured in inches ranging from 3/8" - 3 1/2"
What are transfer needles?

And what are they used for?
specially designed needles which look like two needles attached at their hubs.

They are used to transfer sterile solutions from one vial directly to another without the use of a syringe.
Why is it important to maintain a slight negative pressure inside the vial that contains a hazardous substance?
If positive pressure builds up then the drug solution could spray out and cause aerosol formation.
What is an ampule?
they are glass and once they are broken open (becoming open-system containers) and require no venting of positive or negative pressures. They can only be used once and unused remains should be discarded appropriately.
How do you open an ampule?
1.) swab the neck with alcohol pad.

2.) Firmly snap the neck at the colored mark.

3.) Never open an ampule towards the HEPA filter of a laminar airflow hood.
How do you withdraw medications from ampules?
tilt the ampule and place the tip of the syringe in the rounded area just below where the top has been removed.
How do you prevent glass chips from getting into the IV solution?
Generally, the contents of the ampule are removed using a regular needle and then the needle is changed to a filter needle before pushing the drug out of the syringe.
What does an administration set consist of?
disposable, sterile tubing that connects the IV solution to the injection site.

a roll clamp that is located below the drip chamber

a needle adapter at the opposite end containing y-site adapters and in-line filters.
Name 3 IV solution containers:
1.)flexible PVC bags

2.)semi-rigid polyolefin

3.)containers glass containers
What are the two types of intravenous medication administration and what is the difference between them?
1.) IV injection (aka IV PUSH or IV BOLUS)- small volume for a short period of time

2.) IV infusion - large volumes over long periods of time.
What are the two types of IV Infusion?
1.) continuous - large volume at a slow constant rate for hours at a time
ex: 1 L of 0.9% NaCl over 8hrs. for re hydration.

2.) intermittent
What does IVPB stand for and what are two advantages of this type of administration?
IVPB - intravenous "piggyback"

1.) the patient will not have a catheter or needle inserted at each dosing interval.

2.) two medications may be administered at two different infusion rates.
What are 4 characteristics of IV solutions?
1.) clarity (fat emulsion for TPN is an exception)

2.) sterility

3.) pH as close to neutral as possible which is 7. 0-7 acidic above 7 is basic

4. isotonicity - a solution that contains the same number of particles as blood.
What are the 8 routes of parenteral administration and what are the abbreviations?
1.) Intradermal - ID

2.) subcutaneous - SC, SQ

3.) intramuscular - IM

4.) intravenous - IV

5.) intra-arterial - IA

6.) intracardiac - IC

7.) intrathecal - into spinal fluid

8.) intrasynovial - in the joint
9 most commonly administered I.V. solutions:
1.) D5W - 5% dextrose - isotonic

2.) D10W - 10% dextrose - hypertonic

3.) Normal Saline(NS) - .9% NaCl - isotonic

4.) 1/2 NS - .45% - Hypotonic

5.) 1/4 NS

6.) D5/NS - hypertonic

7.) D5-1/2NS - hypertonic

8.) D5-1/4NS - isotonic

9.) Lactated Ringer's - Na, K, Ca, Cl, lactate - isotonic
3 incompatibilities possible in I.V. mixtures:
1.) physical - caused by change of solubility of a drug. Overcome by diluting each ingredient first, then mixing with constant aggitation.

2.) chemical - pH changes due to addition of highly acidic or alkaline drugs. light may also be a factor

3.) therapeutic - mixing together of two or more drugs which causes a change in the therapeutic response of both drugs.
What are laminar flow hoods?
air filters that create an environment that is considered "Class 100" meaning no more than 100 particles per cubic foot. this is required for sterile products.
Describe the 2 basic types of laminar flow hoods:
1.) Horizontal flow hoods: air is taken in the unit and passed through a prefilter, which removes contaminants such as dust and lint. The air is compressed and distributed evenly through a HEPA filter to create a constant air flow of approximately 90 linear feet per minute.

2.) vertical flow hoods: air enters top of unit and is blown downward toward the work area. They are also known as "Safety Biological Cabinets"
What does HEPA stand for?
high efficiency particulate air
What does the vertical flow hood protect?
The technician from exposure to cytotoxic or hazardous drugs.
What are the two types of vertical flow hoods?
1.) Class II Type A - exhausts 30%, HEPA filtered air back into the room

2.) Class II Type B - exhausts totally outside.
What is the most frequent cause of contamination to IV admixtures?
touch contamination
7 ways to prevent touch contamination:
1.) scrub hands up to elbow with antibacterial agent

2.) don't wear any jewelry

3.) talking and coughing should be directed away from the laminar flow work area

4.) only objects needed for sterile product preparation should be brought to the laminar flow work area.

5.) trays washed weekly

6.)wear clean clothes, free of particulates

7.)avoid touching any portion of the sterile product.
What are "Critical sites" of contamination?
needle shaft

syringe plunger

diaphragm of container