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20 Cards in this Set

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What are examples of amide anesthetics?
lidocaine, buprivicaine, etidocaine, mepivacaine
What are examples of ester anesthetics?
procaine, proparacaine, tetracaine
What are the differences between amide anesthetics and ester anesthetics?
Amides have a longer half life compared to esters. Amides are also metabolized by the liver. Esters are broken down to PABA which may cause allergic reactions. They have a short half-life and therefore are short acting due to rapid elimination.
How do local anesthetics cause neuronal blockade.
blockage of voltage dependent Na+ channels therefore preventing influx of Na+ therefore preventing depolarization therefore blocking formation of action potential.
Besides neuronal blockade other pharmacological effects of local anesthetics include
CNS stimulation- overdose = seizures esp in horses.
Cardiovascular depression = direct and via vasodilation
Which local anesthetics are proarrhythmic?
buprivicaine, etidocaine
Which local anesthetics are antiarrthymic?
lidocaine
Which local anesthetic is used in the treatment of cardiac ventricular tachycardia?
lidocaine
Local anesthetics are tightly bound to plasma proteins which increases duration of action and systemic levels. What effect might this have on toxicity
Decreased protein binding like in patients with liver failure may increase the chances of toxicity. CRI may cause saturation of proteins
___ blood flow _____ absorption of local anesthetics which ______duration of action.
High blood flow increases absorption of local anesthetics which decreases duration of action.
what is the most common preparation of proparacaine?
opthalamic
What are the main differences of lidocain and bupivicaine?
Lidocaine is an antiarrhymic, fast onset of action
Bupivicaine: proarrhythmic, slow duration, intermediate onset, more potent, more toxic.
Which local anesthetic is commonly used and the only approved one in horses?
mepivicaine
Why might it be a good idea to use sodium bicarbonate in conjunction with local anesthetics?
It increases the amount of nonionized drug so increased absorption, decreased duration of action, but faster onset. Also pain relief at site of injection.
how long is the onset of action of local anesthetic creams
30-60 minutes
Onset of action..
fast to slow:
lidocaine, prilocaine, mepivicaine
bupivicaine
tetracain
What is the duration of injectable local anesthetics
a few hours
What type of nerves are blocked first by local anesthetics?
small myelenatd nerves are blocked first
Type B/C, then pain, then A, then motor.
Which animal species is most sensitive to local anesthetics?
horses and cats
What drug would we use to treat local anesthetic toxicity?
phenobarbitol, diazepam.