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157 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Agonist
A drug that binds to the receptor and stimulates the receptors function
Antagonist
a drug that binds with a receptor but does not cause a response
Anticoagulant
delaying or preventing blood coagulation
Adipose Tissue
fat tissue
Adverse Drug Effect
an unintended, undesired response to a drug
Anaphylaxis
shock, constriction of airways with difficulty breathing, death
Addiction
continued use of a substance despite its physical, psychological or social harm
Anticholinesterase
block enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine
Anticholinergic
impedes the impulses of the cholinergic nerve fibers; syn: parasympatholytic
Antimuscarinic
opposing the action of muscarine or agents that act like muscarines. EG - atropine
Amnesia
Loss of memory
Adrenergic
nerve fibers that, when stimulated, release epinephrine at their endings
Angina
pain caused by a deficiency of oxygen supply the heart muscle
Automaticity
self acting, spontaneous
Angiotensin I
inactive form of angiotensin and the precursor of angiotensin II
Angiotensin II
active form of angiotensin that is a powerful vasopressor and stimulator of aldosterone production and secretion
Aldosterone
A homone secreted by the adrenal cortex that regulates the metabolism of sodium, chloride and potassium
Antidiabetic agents
an agent that prevents or relieves diabetes
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme
the enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II
Buccal
in the hollow of the cheek
biotransformation
drugs changed by a series of chemical reactions
bronchoconstriction
constriction of bronchial tubes
bradycardia
a slow heart rate characterized by a pulse rate that is under 60 bpm
bronchodilation
dilating or opening of the bronchus
baroreceptor reflex
Reflex that is activated by the group of nerves found in the atria of the heart, vena cava, aortic arch and carotid sinus that are sensitive to mechanical changes that are produced when the pressure inside the vessel to which they are attached is altered
brain attack
Stroke, CVA, TIA
Chemical name
formal name of the drug that shows the chemistry of the drug
cysts
a closed sac or pouch with a definite wall that contains fluid, semifluid or solid material
cholinergic crisis
too much acetylcholine that leads to excessive muscle stimulation and eventual fatigue
Coma
deep sleep; unable to aroused by external stimuli
catecholamine
epinephrine and norepinephrine
contractility
having ability to contract or shorten
COPD
defined as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COLD (chronic obstructive lung disease), encompasses chronic bronchitis and emphysema
Congestive Heart Failure
low cardiac output that progresses over years
cardiac output
the amount of blood discharged from the left or right ventricle per minute
Dose Response Curve
a graph in which the degree of the effect of a drug is charted at specific doses
Duration of Action
the time between the onset of action of a drug and when there is no observable action
Drug Reservoir
adipose tissue serve as a drug resevoir where lipid soluble drugs accumulate in fat and stay for periods of time and are released slowly into the bloodstream after drug administration has stopped
Drug interactions
one drug may increase/decrease the effect of another drug and/or cause an adverse effect
Defecate
Evacuation of the bowels
dysrhythmia
abnormal heart rhythm
down regulation
to inhibit or suppress the normal response of an organ or system
diuretics
agents that increase the secretion of urine
efficacy
ability of a drug to produce a response
epidural
into the spinal cord, outside the dura mater
enzyme induction
one drug induces the formation of enzymes that metabolize a second drug
enteropathic recirculation
some drugs that are excreted in bile are reabsorbed into the blood from the lower GI tract
Extension of therapeutic effect
when the therapeutic effect is carried beyond what is desireable
endotracheal intubation
tube placed insided the trachea to provide an airway
edema
a local or generalized condition in which the body tissues contain an excessive amount of tissue fluid
First Pass Effect
blood from the gastrointestinal tract goes to the liver first where the drug is metabolized before reaching the systemic circulation
Free Drug
unbound drug molecules;not bound to plasma proteins; only free or unbound drug molecules can be metabolized or excreted
Generic name
official drug name listed int he US pharmacopeia
glomerular filtration
process by which drugs are eliminated by the kidney and the filtration rate depends on the blood pressure
Gastric Lavage
washing out of the stomach
Glaucoma
a group of eye diseases characterized by an increase in pressure within the eyeball
Genitourinary
pertains to genitals and urinary organs
half-life
time needed for the plasma concentration of a drug to fall to exactly one half of its previous concentration
hypersensitivity
allergic reaction
hypotension
low blood pressure
Hypertension
higher blood pressure than what is judged to be normal
Hyperglycemia
increased blood glucose level
Hyperthyroidism
a condition caused by an excessive secretion of the thyroid gland that increases the basal metabolic rate
Hallucinations
sensations for which there is not external basis
High Density Lipoproteins (HDL)
the good component of cholesterol
Heart block
condition in which the conductible tissue of the heart fails to conduct impulses normally from the atrium to the ventricles
Heart Failure
failure of the heart to maintain adequate circulation of blood; cessation of the heartbeat
intramuscular
into the muscle
intradermal
under the epidermis
intravenous
into a vein
intrathecal
into the subarachnoid space surrounding the spinal cord
idiosyncrasy
individualized response to a drug
iatrogenic
adverse drug effects caused by health care providers
insomnia
inability to sleep at a time when the person's expected sleep is to occur
intracranial hemorrhage
bleeding wtihin the skull or cranium
impulse conduction
a change transmitted through certian tissues that result in physiological activity or inhibition
log dose response curves
used for comparing drug's threshold dose and peak effect
lipid soluble
moleucules that pass easily across a lipid membrane
lacrimation
tearing
metabolites
any product of metabolism
Myasthenic Crisis
great muscular weakness and progressive fatigue caused by acetylcholine levels that are insufficient to stimulate skeletal muscle contraction
Messenteric Blood Vessels
intestinal blood vessels
Migraines
Severe HA
Morbidity
state of being sick or diseased
Mortality
death
Metabolic alkalosis
plasma bicarbonate is increased with a proportionate rise in the plasma concentration of CO2
myocardial ischemia
inadequate flow of blood to the heart leading to angina, or if untreated, myocardial infarction
Neuromuscular blocking agent
drugs used to cause complete muscle relaxation
Narcolepsy
a sleep disorder in which an individual, usually adult, is periodically overcome with craving to sleep, or falls asleep
onset of action
the time between taking the drug and the first appearance of its effects
oral
by mouth
organophosphates
anticholinesterases found in many pesticides that irreversibly bind with cholinesterase and cause cholinergic crisis
osteoporosis
reduction in the mass of bone sufficient to interfere with the mechanical supprot function of the bone
osmolality
the concentration of the solute in a solution per unit of solvent
potency
strength of a drug
peak effect
the point at which increasing the dose no longer results in an increased intensity of effect
peak action
the maximum effect achieved
parenteral
any other medication route other than the digestive tract
plasma protein bound
always bound to plasma proteins
parasympathomimetic
drugs that mimic the parasympathetic nervous system
parasympatholytic
blocking of parasympathetic nerve fibers
palpitations
an abnormaly rapid throbbing or fluttering of the heart
perfusion
passing of a fluid through a space
presynaptic
located before the synaptic cleft
premature ventricular contractions
PVC- contraction of the ventricle prior to the normal time
postural hypotension
change in position that causes a drop in blood pressure
parasthesia
sensation of numbness, prickling or tingling
peripheral neuritis
inflammation of terminal nerves associated with a degenerative process
potentiation
the synergistic action of two substances whereby the total effects are greater than the sum of independent effects of the two substances
preload
the degree of ventricular stretch that exists just before contraction
receptors
molecules on the cell surface that bind with other complimentary molecules
receptor blockers
precents receptor stimulation
rectal
per rectum
renin
an enzyme produced by the kidneys that acts on angiotensin to form angiotensin I
Rebound HTN
an episode of intense and potentially dangerous increase in blood pressure
renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
mechanisms of the kidney to control blood pressure
rheumatoid- like syndrome
a group of signs and symptoms that are similar to rheumatoid arthrits
sublingual
under the tongue
subcutaneous
under the skin in the subcutaneous tissue
solubility
how easily the drug crosses the membrane
salivation
the act of secreting saliva
sympathomimetic
drugs that mimic the sympathetic nervous system
sympathomimetic amines
term used to describe sympathomimetic drugs
seizures
abnormal electrical activity in the brain
sympatholytic
drugs that block the effects of the sympathetic nervous system
stroke volume
the amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle at each heart beat
systemic vascular resistance
SVR - afterload
the amount of tension, force or pressure that the ventricle must develop during contraction to open the semilunar valve and expel blood
sinusitis
inflamation of a sinus
systolic blood pressure
maximum blood pressure; occurs during contraction of the ventricle
suprasensitivity
exepcially extra sensitive reaction
Trade Name
brand name given by drug company
Threshold dose
the amount of drug that must be present to produce a minimally observable effect
transdermal
across the skin
Tight junction
act as a barrier to many drug molecules
Tubular Secretions
major porcess by which drugs are eliminated by the kidney using a "pump" action
Toxicity
essentially a poisoning
Therapeutic Index
shows safety of a drug
Tolerance
decreased response to a drug overtime
Tachycardia
heart rate over 100 beats per minute in adults
Tachyphylaxis
rapidly developing tolerance of a drug
Tumorigenic
producing tumors, especially malignancies
Urination
the act of voiding urine
volatile
evaporating rapidly
Vagus
the 10th cranial nerve
Vascular
blood vessels
Vasoconstrictor Drug
a drug that causes constriction of blood vessels
Vasodilation
increase in the diameter of blood vessels
water soluble
ionized particles that cannot easily cross lipid cell membranes
Factors Affecting medication dosages and responses:
Body Weight
because medications are abdobed and distributed in body tissue, individuals with a greater body mass may require larger doses.
Factors Affecting medication dosages and responses:
Age
Young children with immature liver and kidney function, and older adults often with reduced liver and kidney function, may require proportionately smaller medication doses.
Factors Affecting medication dosages and responses:
Gender
females may respond differently to medications than males due to a higher proportion of body fat and the effects of femaly hormones
Factors Affecting medication dosages and responses:
Genetics
genetic factors such as missing enzymes can alter the metabolism of certain medications, thus enhancing or reducing medication action
Factors Affecting medication dosages and responses:
Biorhythmic cycles
responses to certan medcations vary with the biologic rhythm of the body. for example, hypnotic medications work better when given at the usual sleep time that at other times
Factors Affecting medication dosages and responses:
Tolerance
reduced responsiveness to a mediacation may either be congenital or acquired. cross tolerance may occur with other chemically similar medications.
Factors Affecting medication dosages and responses:
Accumulation
medication concentration in the bady can be increased bty the inability to metabolize or excrete a medication rapily enough, resulting in a toxic medication effect. for older adults, decreased renal function is the major cause of medicationaccumulation leading to toxicity
Factors Affecting medication dosages and responses:
Psychological Factors
emotional states and expectations can influence the effects of a medication. a term used to describe positive medication effects influenced by psychological factors is the placebo effect
Factors Affecting medication dosages and responses:
Medical Conditions
inadequate gastric acid
diarrhea
vascular insufficiency
liver disease/failure
kidney disase/failure