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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
these anesthetics work by interfering with the depolorization of the nerve membrane
local anesthetics
local anesthetics affect smaller nonmylinated nerves first then larger or myelinated nerves last T or F?
name some properties of an ideal local anesthetic
long lasting
low cost
long shelf life
non toxic
rapid onset
toxicity of local anesthetics affects what 2 systems?
CNS and C-V (cardiovasular)
what is the initial adverse reaction to the CNS by local anesthetics?
restlessness, tremors and convulsions
what are later adverse reactions to the CNS by local anesthetics?
depression leading to coma and death
what are adverse reactions to the C-V system by local anesthetics?
myocardial depression, possible fatal arrhythmia
A genetic, adverse reaction to local anesthetics is __?
Malignant hyperthermia
If you have symptoms of musular rigidity, acidosis, elevated body temp and increased serum calcium levels
you may be having a ___ reactio to ___ anesthetics

an __ reaction is rare to amides, and more common with esters; ranges from a rash to anaphylactic shock
what are the 5 ingredients in a carpule of local anesthetic?
1. anesthetic 2-3%
2. vasoconstrictor
3. antioxidant
4. sodium hydroxide
5. sodium chloride
what ingredient in a local anesthetic carpule keeps the anesthetic in a local area for a long time?
sodium metabisulfite, sodium bisulfite or acetone sodium bisulfite are types of
__ ; an ingredient in a local anesthetic carpule that retards oxidation of epinephrine
this ingredient adjusts the pH of the solution in a local anesthetic carpule
sodium hydroxide
this ingredient makes the local anesthetic solution isotonic
sodium chloride
this ingredient is not used in single dose local anesthetics
The 4 generic types of Amide local anesthetic

"i" before the "caine" = Amide
1. lidocaine
2. mepivacaine
3. prilocine
4. bupivacaine
local anesthetic frequently used by docs to control cardiac arrythmia, rapid onset, 1 to 1.5 hours w/vasoconstrictor
lidocaine (Xylocaine, Octocaine)
local anesthetic metabolized in the liver; excreted in the kidneys

local anesthetic metabolized in the blood; excreted in the kidneys

what is used as a local anesthetic when a patient is allergic to all injectables?
amide similar to lidocaine, vasoconsrtictor is levonordefrin (Neo-Cobefrin)
mepivacaine ( Carbocaine, Polocaine, Isocaine)
amide that is LESS potent, LESS toxic than lidocaine with SLIGHTLY longer duration
prilocaine (Citanest)

amide that is LESS potent, MORE toxic than lidocaine with MUCH LONGER duration; good for long procedures or post-op surgery
bupivacaine (Marcaine)

why are esters no longer avail in single dose dental carpules?

they have the propensity to cause local allergic reactions
safest ester frequesntly used as an antiarrythmic agent
procaine (Novacaine)
what the 3 generic types of esters?
1. procaine (Novacaine)
2. propoxycaine (Ravocaine)
3. tetracaine (Pontocaine)
ester that is MORE potent, MORE toxic than procaine; has a SLOW onset and LONG duration
tetracaine (Pontocaine)
used in the dental office for conscious sedation - reduces anxiety and makes patients more comforatble aka "sedative/hypnotic"
antianxiety agents
Name the 5 types of antianxiety drugs:
1. Benzodiazepines (safest)
2. Barbiturates
3. Non-barbituates
4. CNS muscle relaxants
5. Misc. agents
these drugs work by producing various degres of CNS depression
anitanxiety drugs
antianxiety drugs that end in "am"; diazepam = "valium" first, akprazolam, lorazepam, clonazepam, temazepam
-well absorbed orally
-quick onset
- crosses blood-brain barrier and placenta
-enhances neurotransmitters in limbic, thalaic, cortical and hypothalamic CNS
- controls seizures brought on by local anesthetic toxicity
- anticonvusant; prevents seizure related to stress
- antianxiety at low levels
- drowsiness and sleep at higher levels
wide margin of safety; little resp. depression in therapeutic doses
- 5mg: sleep
- 10mg +: sleep, muscle relaxant (TMJ)
- alters time perception
To prevent seizures, benzodiazepines are used but they must be used with another anticonvulsant T or F?
adverse effects of __ are:
- transient amnesia
- IV can cause thrombophlebitis (vein inflammation)
- birth defects like cleft lip, microcephaly (small head/brain), C-V defects (holes in ventricles)
- death when mixed w/o drugs other than antionvulsants
- abusive potential, physical dependence and tolerance