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76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Failure of the heart to pump blood efficiently
Congestive Heart Failure
What is congestive heart failure
the failure for the heart to adequately distribute blood to the tissue
what are the signs of CHF
coughing,fatige,pulm edema, ascites, weight loss, extremities and abd distended
what lab tests should be done if an animal has signs of CHF
What are the four things that are considered therepy for an animal with CHF
Low salt diet, diuretics, digitalis, vasodilators
If an animal does not want to eat its low salt diet as a therepy for its CHF, what should you do.
Give him what he wants so he will eat something. Twinkies, Oreos, chips....
what do diuretics do
remove fluid from body via renal system
what does Digitalis do
Increase the amt of blood pushed to the body
what do Vasodilators do to BP
lower it
what do Vasodilators do to the blood vessel
dilates them
what is Methyl xanthines
What diuretic retians water in the renal tubles by osmotic action
Osmotic diuretics
What type of diuretic is Mannitol and what does it do
Osmotic. It pulls water with it. ???
When is the osmotic diuretic Mannitol most often used
in head traumas when swelling needs to be decreased from the brain
What is an example of the diuretic Methyl xanthines
what does methyl xanthines do
inhibits sodium resorption by the proximal tubule
what is Thiazides/Chlorthiazide
a diuretic
what are some examples of Loop diuretics
furosemide, Disal, Lasix
what is hypokalemia
to little potassium
What electrolyte is given as a supplement to animals on long term diuretic treatment
K+ (potassium)
what are the side effects of Loop diuretics?
increased excretion of chloride, potassium, and water
where does resorption occur with use of Loop diuretics
Loop of Henle
what is the newest, very powerful group of drugs used as a diuretic.
what does digitalis do
increases force and efficiency of cardiac contractions
What is digoxin/Cardoxin, Lanoxin
what are the signs that digitalis has become toxic
anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, depression, increased excitability, skipped heart beats
what is made from dried plant leaves
digoxin (DIGITALIS)
what durgs are used in-hospital for crises in cardiac output
dopamine and dobutamine
what are two Vasodialtors
captopril/Capoten, enalapril/Enacard
what does the vasodilator Enacard/enalapril do
reduces work for heart by dilating the blood vessels, decreased BP, may slow progression of heart dz, can worsen kidney dz.
what might happen if captopril/Capoten is used along with a NSAID
Decrease effectiveness of Capoten
What are side effects of Vasodilators
vomiting, diarrhea, hypOtention (low BP)
How should cardiac stimulants be used
emergency situations. not for long term use
what are two cardiac stimulants
Epinephrine, Isoproterenol
what do cardiac stimulants do
may initiate a heartbeat during CPR. may strengthen heartbeats
what is an arrhythmia
abnormal heart beat
what is bradycardia
slow heart beat
what is tachycardia
fast heart beat
what is the drug used for ventricular arrhythmias
what drug is similar to Lidocaine but is longer lasting and can be given PO
what is Propranolol
a beta-blocker used as a antiarrhythmic drug
what are beta-blockers (Propranolol) used for
to slow tachycardia and control some arrhythmias
what should be avoided in therapy for heart dz
situations that may be physically and emotionally stressful for the animal
What other therepy can be used while treating a crisis related heart dz
what do calcium channel blockers do
slow heart rate, control arrhythmias and decrease BP
what are expectorants used for
productive cough
what is a productive cough
mucous is produced
what is the route of expectorants
primarily oral (also perenteral or inhaled)
what do expectorants do
have local effect on MM, thins secretions by making them watery, promotes removal of secretions
what drugs are expectorants
Guaifenesin, acethlcysteine/Mucomyst
How is Guaifenesin used
used for equine immobilization with an IV drip to maintain anesthesia
what does mucomyst do
decreases the viscosity of resp secretions
what is the non resp use for Mycomyst
it is used as an antidote for acetaminophen toxicity
a drug that inhibits or suppresses the cough reflex
a drug that enhances the expulsion of secretions from the respiratory tract
thickened or dried out
what is viscid
what does mucolytic mean
having the ability to break down mucus
what is guaifenesin (Glyceryl Guaiacolate) used for
relief of cought symptoms and used in equine practice to induce or maintain general anesthesia
Antitussive syrup, Cough syrup, Cough tablets, Robitussin AC, Triaminic Expectorant
what are the side effects of Guaifenesin (Glyceryl Guaiacolate)
mild drowsiness, nausea
what is acetylcysteine
a mucolytic
what is acetylcysteine used for
to break down mucus and to treat acetominophen toxicity
Trade names for Acetylcysteine
Mucomyst, Mucosil-10, Mucosil-20
how are antitussives classified
centrally and peripherally
inhibits or suppresses coughing
a synthetic opiate with antitussive activity that is CIV schedule
Butophanol (Torbutrol) (Torbugesic)
a schedule III opiate for tx of non-productive cough
Hydrocodone Bitartrate
What are the four categories of drugs that are used for bronchodilation
cholinergis blockers, antihistamines, beta-2 adrenergics, and methylxanthines
what are beta-2 adrenergic agonists used as
Epinephrine, isoprteronal (Isuprel), Albuterol (Venrolin, Proventil), terbutalin (Brethine), metaproterenol (Alupent)
beta 2 agonists
caffeine, theobromine, Aminophylline, theophylline
Theo-Dur, Slo-bid, Choledyl SA, Aminophylline
Doxapram (Dropram V)
central nervous system stimulant used primarily as a stimulant of the respiratory system
Naloxone (Natrexone)
used to stimulate resp in narcotic ODs
yobine (Yohimbine)
Used to stimulate resp in xylazine OD