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55 Cards in this Set

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Opiates-definition
alkaloids derived from opium, which is an extract of the poppy plant
Heroin, codeine, morphine
Opioids- definition
Drugs that act similarly to the opiates, either plant-derived or synthesized
Reasons to use topical therapy
1.Focal lesions
2.Ectoparasites
3.Adjunct to systemic therapy
4.Management or chronic/recurrent skin disease
5.Transepidermal delivery
6.Maximize benefit while minimizing toxicity from systemic absorption
Limitations to topical therapy
1.Hair
2.Client compliance
3.Cats!
Preparation of patient for topical therapy
Remove the hair
Clean the lesions
General rules of topical therapy
Know what you're treating
Know your lesions
Know your products
Transepidermal absorption
Karatinocyte
Lipid bilayer
Transappendicular
??????
Diffusion of topical across barrier depends on...
Concentration of the drug
Solubility of the drug in the vehicle
Diffusion coefficient
Size of the molecule
Cocaine (year)
1884
Procaine (year)
1905
Lidocaine (year)
1943
Local anesthetics block ??
Sensory
Motor
Autonomic
Mechanism of action for local anesthetics
Conduction blockade (membranes don't increase permeability to sodium ions)
Slows rate of depolarization (less likely to reach threshold potential)
Local anesthetics do not alter...
Resting membrane potential
Threshold potential
If an agent is not capable of penetrating, how can a vehicle help it to?
It can't; can only facilitate absorption of an already absorbable substance
Effects of a vehicle on the barrier
Moisturize
lipid soluble
keratolytic
organic solvents
Other factors that influence absorption
Inflammation
Occlusion
Thickness of skin
surface area covered
Ability of vehicle to hydrate stratum corneum will ________ absorption
Increase
High concentration of soluble drug in vehicle will ________ absorption
Increase
High solubility of drug in vehicle will _______ absorption
Decrease
Thick stratum corneum will _________ absorption
Decrease
Water based vehicles
Saoks
Shampoos
Rinses
Sprays
Rehydration
10-15 minutes water
Follow with humectant or oil to maintain
Consequences of prolonged wetting
Dehydration
Maceration
Rules of shampooing
Allow 10 minute contact time
Rinse well
Frequency?
Types of sprays
Regional treatment
Anti-itch
Anti-microbial
Emulsions-definition
Why rarely use?
Oil in water

Occlusive
Greasy
Messy
Gels, creams, and ointments

Contraindications
Vehicles for absorption of medication

Exudative lesions
Water miscible bases
Propylene glycol
DMSO
Propylene glycol
Enhances percutaneous absorption
Organic solvent and vehicle
Keratolytic
Hygroscopic (water retaining)
May cause irritation
DMSO
Organic solvent
Freely miscible with lipids and water
Hygroscopic
Bacteriostatic
Penetrates well
Acts as carrier agent
Antipruritics
Anti-itch

Focal lesions
Whole body
Types of antipruritic
Steroid-containing
Oatmeal
Topical anesthetics
Altered sensation
Corticosteroids
More potent in ointment vehicle
Fluorinated steroids more potent
Alcohol must be included to get steroids into solution (OUCH!)
Side effects of topical steroids
Local atrophy
Alopecia
Systemic absorption
Milia (small white or yellowish nodules)
Guidelines for topical steroid use
Use only when STEROID is indicated
Acute dermatoses affecting small area
Potent steroids for short periods
Hydrocortisone for chronic topical use
Monitor refills
Client education
Topical anesthetics
Pramoxine
Lidocaine
Colloidal oatmeal
Shampoos
Rinses
Sprays
Conditioners
Nonsteroidal topicals
Cool water
Menthol
Definition of seborrhea
Formation of visible scale
Dry (sicca) or oily (oleosa)
Anti-sebborheic properties
Keratolytic – removal of stratum corneum
Keratoplastic – normalization of epidermal turnover
Degreasing
Anti-seborrheic agents
Salicylic acid with
-Sulfur
-Zinc gluconate and pyridoxine
Coal tar
Selenium sulfide
Phytosphingosine
Benzoyl peroxide
Ethyl lactate
Sulfur/salicylic acid
Keratolytic
Keratoplastic
(Anti-seborrheic)

Best when used in equal concentrations
Coal tar
Most potent anti-seborrheic
Keratolytic/keratoplastic
Degreasing
Anti-pruritic
Do not use in cats
Selenium sulfide
Anti-seborrheic

Keratolytic/keratoplastic
Degreasing
Anti-fungal
Can be irritating
Do not use in cats
Phytosphingosine
Anti-seborrheic

Normalizes epidermis
Decreases lipid production
Anti-inflammatory
Benzoyl peroxide
Anti-seborrheic

Keratolytic
Degreasing
Anti-bacterial
Comedolytic (preventing blackheads/acne)
Ethyl lactate
Keratolytic/keratoplastic
Anti-bacterial
Comedolytic
Schnauzer comedo syndrome
Treatment for dry seborrhea
Emollients (oils)
Humectants
Anti-fungals
Topical creams, sprays, lotions (Miconazole, Clotrimazole, Thiabendazole, Chlorhexidine)

Shampoos/rinses (Miconazole, Chlorhexidine, Ketoconazole, Enilconazole, Lime sulfur, Povidone iodine, Bleach)
Anti-microbials
Topical antibiotics (Mupirocin, Amikacin, Gentomycin, Enrofloxacin)

Anti-microbials (Chlorhexidine, Povidone iodine, Acetic acid, Benzoyl peroxide, Ethyl lactate)
Immune-modulation
Tacrolimus
-Calcineurin inhibitor
-Targets lymphocytes
Side effects of topical therapy
1. Systemic absorption
-Steroids
-Antibiotics
-Know the maximum systemic dose that can be safely administered

2. Topical reaction
-Contact allergy/irritant
-Neomycin, bacitracin
-Propylene glycol
-Anything!
Captive bolt approval
Horses, ruminants, swine