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31 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Name the central purpose of inflammation.
Is to contain the injury or destroy the foreign agent

By neutralizing the foreign and removing cellular debris and dead cells, repair of the injured area can proceed at a faster pace, signs of inflammation include swelling, pain, warmth and redness of the affected area.
List drug classifications used to prevent allergic rhinitis.
These are prophylaxis and include
Antihistamines
Glucocorticoids
Mast cell stabilizers
Name the syndrome that can occur with long-term glucocorticoid therapy.
Cushing’s syndrome.
Define pathogenicity.
The ability of the organism to cause infection.
Define “genetic errors” as it relates to drug resistance.
Mutations occur spontaneously and at random and occationlly results in a bacterial cell that has reproductive advantages over its neighbors and may confer drug resistance to a microorganism.
Acquired resistance phenomenon.
Name the type of infection that can occur secondarily to anti-infective therapy.
Superinfections
Name the enzyme secreted by bacteria that limit the usefulness of the penicillins.
Betalactamase or penicillinase
Name the classification of antibiotic that are safe alternatives to the penicillins and can be given over a shorter time.
Macrolides
Name the bacteria that can cause pharyngitis, pneumonia, skin infections, septicemia or endocarditis.
Streptococcus
Name the organism that is single-celled and more complex than bacteria.
Fungi Protozoan.
Superficial fungal infections are sometimes referred to as this.
Dermatophytic
Name what fungal diseases are sometimes known as
Mycoses Yeast
Name the largest class of antifungal medications and know what they inhibit that causes a leaky plasma membrane.
Azoles
they inhibit ergosterol synthesis
Similar to Anphotericin B
Name some community-acquired fungal infections that patients with intact immune defenses are sometimes afflicted with.
Sporotrichosis
Blastomycosis
Histoplasmosis
Coccidioidomycosis
List what systemic mycoses typically affect.
Internal organs:
Lungs
Brain
Digestive organs
Name the drug of choice used for many years to treat systemic fungal infections
Amphotericin B ( Fungizone )
Name the major advantage of the azole medications.
They can be administered orally.
Viruses require a host in order to replicate, so they are considered this.
Intracellular parasites.
During what stage is the HIV-AIDS patient asymptomatic?
Latent phase
The standard aggressive treatment for HIV-AIDS using as many as four drugs at the same time is called this.
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy ( HAART )
Name the type of virus that causes Hepatitis B and list the ways by which it is transmitted
DNA virus, and is transmitted primarily through exposure to contaminated blood and body fluids.
What is the drug used most commonly to treat herpes virus?
Aciclovir ( Zovirax )
Name the virus that is treated with Rebetron.
Hepatitis C or HCV infection
Name the abnormal genes that promote cancer formation.
Oncogenes
Name the route by which most anti-tumor antibiotics are administered.
Intravenously or through direct instillation via a catheter into a body cavity.
Name the groups of chemotherapy drugs that comprise the plant extracts.
Vinca alkaloids
Taxoids
Topoisomerase Inhibitors
Camptothecins
Name the basic anatomical divisions of the digestive system.
Alimentary canal or gastrointestinal ( GI ) tract this extends from the mouth to the anus.
Accessory organs ( saliva, glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas )
Be able to describe an ulcer and the layers of the GI tract it affects.
Peptic Ulcer is erosion of the mucosa layer of the GI tract, usually associated with acute inflammation
Common sites are duodenum in the small intestine and stomach ( Gastric )
The layers affected are Mucous gel layer, bicarbonate layer ( both in the mucosal barrier
The primary cause of PUD is infection by the gram negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori
Know the most common site that ulcers occur in.
Common sites are duodenum in the small intestine and stomach ( Gastric )
Know the definition of constipation.
Constipation is identified by the decrease in the frequency and number of bowel movements. Stools may become dry, hard, and difficult to evacuate from the rectum
Know the 3 conditions for which laxatives are contraindicated.
Asses must be made for distension, bowel sounds, and bowel patterns,
If there is absence of bowel sounds, peristalsis must be restored prior to laxative therapy.
A suden, unxplained change in bowel patterns should be evaluated, as it could indicate a serious condition such as colon cancer.
Assessment should be made for esophageal obstruction, intestinal obstruction, fecal impaction, and undiagnosed abdominal pain.