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65 Cards in this Set

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Define drug
Chemical used to diagnose, treat, or prevent disease.
Define pharmacology
The study of drugs and their interactions with the body.
Define assay
Test that determines the amount and purity of a given chemical in a preparation in the laboratory.
Define bioequivalence
Relative therapeutic effectiveness of chemically equivalent drugs.
Define bioassay
Test to ascertain a drug's availability in a biological model.
Define dose packaging
Medication packages contain a single dose for a single patient.
Define teratogenic drug
Medication that may deform or kill the fetus.
Define pharmacokinetics
How drugs are transported into and out of the body.
Define pharmacodynamics
How a drug interacts with the body to cause its effects.
Define active transport
Transportation that requires the use of energy to move a substance.
Define carrier mediated diffusion (facilitated diffusion)
Process in which carrier proteins transport large molecules across the cell membrane.
Define passive transport
Movement of a substance without the use of energy.
Define diffusion
Movement of a solute in a solution from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Define osmosis
Movement of solvent in a solution from an area of lower solute concentreation to an area of higher solute concentration.
Define filtration
Movement of molecules across a membreane from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure.
Define ionize
To become electrically charged or polar.
Define bioavailability
Amount of a drug that is still active after it reaches its target tissue.
Define blood-brain barrier
Tight junctions of the capillary endothelial cells in the CNS vasculature through which only non-protein-bound, highly lipud-soluble drugs can pass.
Define placental barrier
Biochemical barrier at the maternal/fetal interface that restricts certain molecules.
Define metabolism
The body's breaking down chemicals into different chemicals.
Define biotransformation
Special name given to the metabolism of drugs.
Define prodrug (parent drug)
Medication that is not active when administered, but whose biotransformation converts it into active metabolites.
Define first-pass effective
The liver's partial or complete inactivation of a drug before it reached the systemic circulation.
Define oxyidation
The loss of hydrogen atoms or the acceptance of an oxygen atom. This increases + charge (or lessens the - charge) on the molecule.
Define hydrolysis
The breakage of a chemical bond by adding water, or by incorporating a hydroxyl (OH-) group into one fragment and a hydrogen ion (H+) into the other.
Define enteral route
Delivery of a medication through the gastrointestional tract.
Define parenteral roure
Delivery of a medication outside of the gastrointestional tract, typically using needles to inject medication into the circulatory system or tissues.
Define receptor
Specialized protein that combines with a drug resulting in a biochemical effect.
Define affinity
Force of attraction between a drug and a receptor.
Define efficacy
A drug's ability to cause the expected response.
Define second messenger
Chemical that sprticipates in comples cascading reactions that eventually cause a drugs desired effect.
Define down-regulation
Binding of a drug or hormone to a target receptor that causes the number of receptors to decrease.
Define up-regulation
A drug that causes the formation of more receptors that normal.
Define agonist
Drug that binds to a receptor and causes it to initiate the expected response.
Define agonist-antagonist (partial agonist)
Drug that binds to a receptor and stimulates some of its effects but blocks others.
Define competitive antagonism
One drug that binds to a receptor and causes the expected effect while also blocking another drug from triggering the same receptor.
Define noncompetitive antagonism
The binding of an antagonist causes a deformity of the binding site that prevents an agonist from fitting and binding.
Define irreversible antagonism
A competitive antagonist permanently binds with a receptor site.
Define irreversible antagonism
A competitive antagonist permanently binds with a receptor site.
Define side effect
Unintended response to a drug
Define drug-response relationship
Correlation of different amounts of a drug to clinical response.
Define plasma-level profile
Describes the lengths of onset, duration, and termination of action, as well as the drug's minimum effective concentration and toxic levels.
Define onset of action
The time from administration until a medication reaches its minimum effective concentration.
Define minimum effective concentration
Minimum level of a drug needed to cause a given effect.
Define duration of action
Length of time the amount of drug remains above its minimum effective concentration.
Define termination of action
Time from when the drug's level drops below its minimum effective concentration until it is eliminated from the body.
Define therapudic index
Ratio of a drug's lethal dose for 50% of the population and its effective dose for 50% of the population.
Define biologic half-life
Time the body takes to clear one half of a drug.
What information will a drug profile include?
Names, classification, mechanism of action, indications, pharmacokinetics, side effects/adverse reactions, contraindications, dosage, how supplied, and special considerations
A _________________ ____ drug is described as a drug with a high abuse potential, may lead to severe dependence and there are no accepted medical indications. Examples would be heroin, and LSD.
Schedule I
A _________________ ____ drug has a high abuse potential, and may lead to severe dependence, but has accepted medical uses. Examples are opium, cocaine, morphine, codeine, oxycodone, methadone and secobarbital.
Schedule II
Vicodin and Tylenol w/Codeine are what schedule of drugs?
Schedule III
Diaxepam, lorazepam and phenobarbital are ecamples of __________________ ____ drugs.
Schedule IV
Schedule ____ drugs have a very low abuse potential and are generally used for cough and diarrhea.
V
What are the 6 Rights of Medication Administration?
Right medication, dose, time, route, patient, documentation
What are the 4 pharmacokinetics?
Absorption
Distribution
Biotransformation
Elimination
Oral (PO), orogastric/nasogastric (OG?NG), sublingual (SL), buccal, and rectal (PR) are ______________ routes of medication administration.
enteral
IV, IO, ET, umbilical, IM, SC, inhalation/nebulized, topical, transdermal, nasal, instillation and intradermal are classified as what type of medication routs?
Parenteral
A drug effect that is uique to an individual; different than seen or expected in the population in gerneral is call a(n):
Idiosyncracy
Define tachyphylaxis
A rapidly occuring tolerance to a drug
Increased effectiveness when a drug is given in several doses is know as:
Cumulative effect
Define drug antagonism
The effects of one drug blocks the response to another drug.
Define summation
Also called the additive effect. Two drugs that both have the same effect are give together.
Define synergism
Two drugs that both have the same effect are given together and produce a response greater than the sum of their individual responses; 1+1=3
Define potentiation
One drug enhances the effect of another.