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21 Cards in this Set

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Type of Antibiotic:
quinolones
rifampin
sulfamides
flucytosine
trimethoprim
Inhibitors of DNA and RNA synthesis
Type of Antibiotic:
PCN
cephalosporin
bacitracin
polymixins
amphotericin B
ketoconazole
caspofungin
daptomycin
Cell Wall and Membrane Inhibitors
Type of Antibiotic:
streptomycin
erythromycin
tetracyclin
Protein Synthesis Inhibitors
This drug in an analog of PABA and inhibits synthesis of folate.
Sulfa
This drug is an analog of Tetrahydrofolate that inhibits DHF reductase, preventing the use of folate.
Trimethoprim
These drugs are topoisomerase (gyrase) inhibitors, causing tangled chromosomes upon replication.
Floxacins: Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin
aka: Quinolones
This drug binds RNA poly and inhibits RNA synthesis, by interfering with the binding of purine NTP to the active site, so that initiation cannot occur.
Rifampin
This drug is deaminated into 5FU (in fungal cells) which is incorporated into nucleosides to inhibit nucleic acid synthesis (esp. thymidine).
Flucytosine
This drug inhibits the racemase and synthetas enzymes responsible for linking D-ala:D-ala dipeptide, required for cell wall synthesis.
Cycloserine
This drug binds D-ala:D-ala, preventing it from transfering across membrane so that peptidoglycan synthetase can add it to growing cell wall. Prevents polymerization of cell wall.
Vancomycin
These drugs are structural analogs of D-ala:D-ala terminal. When incorporated into cell wall they serve as suicide substrates, interfering with cross-linking and causing imbalance between transpeptidase and murein hydrolase. Cell integrity is compromised and lysis occurs.
Penicillin and Cephalosporin
This drug is a surface active compound that acts like a cationic detergent to destroy cell membrane, by binding to anion PL. Chaotropic. Enhanced affinity for Gram-negatives.
Polymyxin
These drugs are pore forming compounds that make holes in cell membranes.
Amphotericin B, Nystatin

Daptomycin also makes pores
This drug inhibits fungal p450, leading to decreased ergosterol and defects in membranes/permeability.
Ketoconazole
This drug inhibits synthesis of Beta(1-3) glucan, which inhibits membrane biosynthesis of structural components for cell wall of fungi.
Capsofungin
A lipopeptide that requires physiologic concentrations of calcium. This drug inserts into membranes causing K+ efflux and results in depolarization of bacterial membranes. Cell dies: RAPIDLY!
Daptomycin
Binds S12 protein of 30S, interfering with tRNA binding and causes incorrect insertion of aa. Misreading.

Membrane damage occurs and loss of ions result.

An aminoglycoside (static when low, cidal when high)
Streptomycin
This drug binds 30S, inhibiting the binding of aatRNA to the A site for elongation.
Tetrocyline
This drug prevents formation of the ribosome complex by binding 23S rRNA of the 50S ribosome. Inhibits initiation. *special drug for special times!
Linezolid
This drug binds to 50S, inhibiting peptide bond formation by altering A site orientation so peptidyl transferase can't work.

Resistance: CAT deactivates drug
Chloramphenicol
This drug inhibits translocation and causes premature release of polypeptides, by binding to L15 protein of 50S subunit.

Resistance thru methylation of 23S
Erythromycin