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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the MOA of Bacitracin ointment?
inhibits cell wall synthesis in the bacterium which leads to cell death.
Bacitracin is used in the treatment of local skin infections caused by....
gram positive organisms:
anaerobi cocci
Is Bacitracin bacteriocidal or bacteriostatic?
Both... depending upon the organism
What patient teaching about Bacitracin is essential for families with small children?
Keep out of reach of children:
oral ingestion can cause nephrotoxicity
Side effects of Bacitracin
What dermatological agents are used to treat acne vulgaris? pg 937-8
isotretinoin (Accutane)
Tretinoic (retinoic acid)
benzoyl peroxide
What side effects are of concern for a female taking Isotretinoin?
Pregnancy category X (known to cause birth defects)
use 2 forms of birth control while taking isotretinoin
What instructions should be given to a 17 year old male taking Tretinoin?
1. Apply every night @ bedtime
2. apply after cleaning and allow 30 minutes to dry.
3. avoid weather extremes and UV radiation (ie wear sunscreen)
4. Tretinoin acts as an irritant to the skin and common SE inclued excessively red and edematous blisters, crusted skin, and temporary alteration to skin pigmentation.
Which lab values are monitored for a 29 YO female w/ 2nd degree burns and is receiving silver sulfadiazine treatments?
Monitor CBC, platelets, liver and renal functions.
What is the MOA of Silver Sulfadiazine?
Acts on the cell membrane and cell wall to produce a toxic effect on bacteria
What are the side effects of Silver Sulfadiazine?
What SE is possible if Silver Sulfadiazine is applied to large areas of the skin
Leukopenia - abnormally low leukocytes
How should the nurse apply Silver Sulfadiazine?
topically to cleansed, debrided, or burned areas Daily or BID. Applied 1/16" thick w/ continuous coverage in affected area.
Which forms of corticosteroids penetrates the skin most and least
skin penetration in decreasing order effectivenes: Ointments, Gels, Creams, and Lotions.
Why are high potentcy corticosteroids counter indicated in children?
Children have higher absorption rates and are more at risk for side effects.
What are the side effects from the use of corticosteroids?
acne eruptions, allergic contact dermatitis, burning, itching, dryness, hypopigmentation, purpura, hirsutism (heavy hair growth), folliculitis, alopecia (hair loss)
What areas of the skin should the nurse not apply low potentcy corticosteroids?
They should not be used over large body surface areas, on chickenpox, widespread poison ivy due to systemic absorption.
What are examples of the most potent coritcosteroids?
Betamethasone dipropionate
Clobetasol propionate
Diflorasone diacetate
Halobetasol propionate
Remember: BCDH
What are examples of the least potent corticosteroids?
remember: DHM
What instructions should be given to prevent reinfestation of scabies?
ID the source of infestation, clothing and personal articles should be decontaminated, and all close contacts of infected persons should be treated.
- don't sleep with someone with crabs
What are the side effects of Lindane?
eczematous skin rash, and CNS toxicity
A 14 year old male has headlice and has used OTC med w/o success. Which drug may be indicated?
Lindane Shampoo
What instructions should be given on the use of Lindane shampoo?
work shampoo into hair for 4 minutes. Hair should be rinsed and dried then the nits should be combed from the hair shafts.
What is the MOA of the parasympathomimetic drug Pilocarpine?
mimics acetylcholine in the PSNS which causes pupillary constriction (miosis)
What are the uses of the parasympathomimetic drugs?
Treat open angle glaucoma, angle-closure glaucoma, occular surgery, convergent strabismus (cross eye) and ophthalmic exams
What are the most common side effects of the parasympathomimietic drugs?
blurred vision and accomodative spasms. Prolonged use can result in cysts, lens opacity, and rarely retinal detachment.
What do sympathomimetics (Propine) cause?
Stimulates the dilator muscle to contract increasing the pupil size. Decreases formation of aqueous humor and increases its outflow lowering IOP
What symptom(s) may be a sign of a systemic side effect of Timolol, a Beta-adrenergic blocker?
Headache, dizziness, cardiac irregularities, and bronchospasm.
Ocular Beta-adrenergic blocking agents act by:
reducing the formation of aqueous humor and increasing its outflow, which causes reduced IOP
List 6 ocular antibiotics that may be used to treat bacterial ocular infections such as bacterial conjuctivitis:
Macrolides - erythromycin, natamycin
Polypeptides - Bacitracin
Quinolones - ciprofloxacin
Sulfonamides - sulfacetamide
Miscellaneous - chloramphenicol, silver nitrate
What is the MOA of sulfacetamide?
Block synthesis of folic acid in susceptible bacteria
What drugs are indicated in the treatment of eye inflammations?
Corticosteroids and NSAIDS
List 4 NSAIDS used as opthalmic antiinflammatory agents
Remember DFKS (deep french kisses?)
List 5 corticosteroids used as opthalmic antiinflammatory agents
Remember: DFMPR
Mydriatics are drugs that:
dialates the pupil by paralyzing the ciliary muscle and prevents accomodation. Useful for eye exams or uveal tract inflammations that benefit from pupillary dilation.
What is an antidote to miotic drugs?
pralidoxime (Protopam) a cholinesterase reactivator to reverse paralysis
What are the side effects caused by extended use of dexamethasone?
cataracts, increased IOP, and optic nerve damage
A 14 YO child comes to the ER w/ an acute injury to his cornea. What drug should the nurse have on hand?
tetracaine or another ophthalmic anesthetic.
What should the nurse teach a patient about Miconazole?
Inhibits growth of fungi, dermatophytes, and yeast, gram + bacteria. Apply sparingly to the cleansed, dry infected area BID
What are 2 factors that predispose a person to Candida infection?
1. Broadspectrum antibiotic therapy - promotes an overgrowth of nonsusceptible organism in the natural body florae.
2. Immunodeficiency disorders such as those w/ cancer, AIDS, or organ transplants