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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Definition of Pharmocology
The study of drugs
pharmaco = drugs
logy = study
Definition of Drug
therapeutic agent;

any substance, other than food, used in the prevention, diagnosis, alleviation, treatment or cure of disease
Who can prescribe drugs?
And who can they prescribe for?
Physicians - for humans
Veterinarians - for animals
Dentists - for dental problems
Optometrists - for eyp problems

** In certain states & under special guidelines, physicians assistants, nurse practitioners and pharmacists can prescribe drugs
If the dental hygienest cant prescribe drugs, why is it important for them to learn pharmacology? (8 reasons)
1) Obtaining health history
2) Premedications
3) Administering drugs in the office (local anesthetics, general anesthetics, NO2, Fluoride)
4) Handling emergencies
5) Planning appointments (AM or PM, premed, etc)
6) OTC meds
7) Discussing drug (proper terminology, allergies, side effects)
8) Life long learning (new drugs)
Sources of info. for drugs
- books
- journals
- CD roms
- DVDs
- interntet
- PDAs
Formate of drug info sources
1) Explain-discuss format
EX. text books

2) Reference-list format
EX. enumerate facts about drugs
Books specific to dentistry (3)
1) Your text

2) Some specific to dental students

3) ADA guide to dental therapeutics
What is the minimum requirement for drug references in dental offices?
Every dental office should have at least one reference book that lists the names of both prescription and OTC drugs
Drugs have how many names?
All drugs have at least 2 names.

Some have more.
Definition of Chemical Name
The name the drug is identified by when being investigated by a company

It is determined by its chemical structure
Definition of Trade Name
the name given to a drug by a pharmaceutical company who dicovers the drug

This happens once the drug compound has been found to be useful.
EX. Tylenol
Def of Generic Name

And how many generic names does one drug have.
The official name of a drug given before it is marketed.

Each drug has 1 generic
name. It is selected by the US Adopted Name Council

- Not capitalized
- Selected so that it does not conflict with other drug names
EX acetaminophen
How long does a trade name protected?

What law is it protected by?

What happens after the protection expires?
Protected for 17 years

By the Federal patent law

After 17 yrs, other companies may market the drug under a generic name.
EX. Kirkland acetaminophen
What does the FDA require of a drug that is marketed by other companies after the trade name expires?
The FDA requires that the active ingredient of the generic product enter the blood stream at the same rate of the original trade product
Local anesthetic
- Generic name
- Trade name
Generic name - lidocaine

Trade name - Xylocaine, Octocaine
Def of Chemically Equivalent
2 formulations of a drug meet the chemical and physical standards established by regulatory agencies
Def of Biologically Equivalent
2 formulations of a drug produce similar concentrations of the drug in the blood stream
Def of Therapeutically Equivalent
2 formulations of a drug have an equal therapeutic effect in clinical trials
Drugs can be ______ equivalent, but neither ______ or _______equivalent.
Drugs can be CHEMICALLY equivalent, but neither BIOLOGICALLY or THERAPEUTICALLY equivalent.
Before generic drugs are marketed, they must be _______ equivalent.
Before generic drugs are marketed, they must be BIOLOGICALLY equivalent.
Harrison Narcotic Act does?
governs the use of opium, opiates, & cocaine
Food and Drug Administration (DHHS) does?
grants approval for drugs to be marketed in US
Federal Trade Commision does?
Regulates trade practices of drug companies

Prohibits false information/adertisement of food, OTCs, & cosmetics
Drug Enforcement Administration does?
Regulates manufacturing & distribution of substances with potential for abuse (narcotics)
Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act does?
Mandates pharmacists to provide counseling and drug review of medicare patients.
--> but now pharmacists do it for everyone
Clinical evaluation of new drug
Phase 1
Small group.
Then increasing doeses to healthy individuals to check safety
Clinical evaluation of new drug
Phase 2
Medium size group

Check efficacy and safety.

Report adverse reactions
Clinical evaluation of new drug
Phase 3
Large size group

Safety and efficacy, dosage
Clinical evaluation of new drug
Phase 4
Post marketing surveilance
Guidelines for Prescription writing (5)
1) Have to be clear
2) Without mistakes
3) Pharmacy uses metric system based on 10
4) Solid drugs are dispensed by weight...Liquid drugs dispensed by volume
5) For household use doses are often changed from metric to convenient measures
EX. mL --> Tbsp or Tsp
Format of Rx
1) Heading
- Superscription: patient name, address, age, date

2) Body
- Inscription: drug information
- Subscription: directions to pharmacist

3) Closing
- Transcription: signature, direction to the patient
Rx Abbreviations the following mean?

bid = twice a day
disp = dispense
PO = by mouth
prn = as required
q = every
qid = 4 times a day
Sig = write
tid = 3 times a day
Precautions for Rx (4)
1) Office should keep a copy of each prescription written

2) Prescribe only to a patient of record

3) Prescribe only for a dental condition

4) Keep prescription pads & DEA number in a safe place
Scheduled drugs = ?
Controlled substances are classified accourding to their abuse potential
Classifications for Schedule Drugs (5)
Schedule I - only for research
Schedule II - (oxycodone, morphine)
- written prescrip
- no refillls
Schedule III - (codeine mixtures)
- no more than 5 refills in 6 months
- can be called in
Schedule IV - (Diazepam)
- same as above
Schedule V - (codeine containing cough syprups)