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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Is the sympathetic nervous system the adrenergic system or the cholinergic system?
adrenergic
What are the primary neurotransmitters of the sympathetic nervous system?
- norepinephrine
- epinephrine
- dopamine
Which is responsible for the "fight or flight" response - sympathetic or parasympathetic?
sympathetic
What activates the "fight or flight" response?
internal or external stress
Is the parasympathetic system the adrenergic or cholinergic system?
cholinergic
What is the primary neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system?
acetylcholine
What branch of the ANS is referred to as the "rest and digest" system?
parasympathetic
What are the 4 categories of drugs used to influence the autonomic nervous system?
- andrenergic agonists
- andrenergic antagonists
- cholinergic agonists
- cholinergic antagonists
Andrenergic Agonist Drugs are also referred to as what?
Sympathomimetics
Andrenergic Antagonist Drugs are also referred to as what?
Blockers or Sympatholytics
Cholinergic Agonists are also referred to as what?
Parasympathomimetics or Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors
Cholinergic Antagonists are also referred to as what?
Anticholinergics or Parasympatholytics
Adrenergic drugs mimic what 3 hormones?
- norepinephrine
- epinephrine
- dopamine
What are the 5 receptor sites that adrenergic agonist drugs (sympathomimetics) act on?
- alpha1
- alpha2
- beta1
- beta2
- dopaminergic
What is released when alpha1 receptors are stimulated?
norephinephrine, epinephrine, and/or dopamine
What changes occur in the body when alpha1 receptors are stimulated?
- force of cardiac contraction increases
- arterioles and venules vasoconstrict (which increases bp and blood return to the heart)
- pupils dilate
- bladder neck contracts
- salivation decreases
What occurs to the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine when alpha2 receptors are stimulated?
epinephrine and norepinephrine are inhibited
What changes occur in the body when alpha2 receptors are stimulated?
- blood pressure decreases
What is the purpose of alpha2 receptors since they generally function opposite of normal sympathetic nervous system responses?
they function in a negative feedback mechanism; to maintain homeostasis
What is released when beta1 receptors are stimulated?
norepinephrine, epinephrine and/or dopamine
What changes occur in the body when beta1 receptors are stimulated?
- force of cardiac contraction and heart rate increases
- increase renin from the kidneys (which raises bp)
- intra-ocular pressure is increased
What is released when beta2 receptors are stimulated?
- epinephrine
What changes occur in the body when beta2 receptors are stimulated?
- bronchioles are dilated
- gastrointestinal and uterine relaxation occur
What changes occur in the body when dopaminergic receptors are stimulated?
- coronary arteries, renal blood vessels, and visceral blood vessels are dilated
- periphery vessels are constricted

(preferential perfusion)
Does beta1 stimulation affect the heart or lungs?
heart
Does beta2 stimulation affect the heart or lungs?
lungs
What are catacholamines?
endogenous substances (such as norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine)
What type of drugs block the effects of the sympathetic neurotransmitters?
- adrenergic antagonist drugs (blockers/sympatholytics)
What are the 2 type of adrenergic antagonist drugs?
- alpha adrenergic blockers
- beta adrenergic blockers
Drugs that reduce the level of dopamine in the brain are called what? What agents are they often used in?
anti-dopaminergic drugs - often used as anti-anxiety and anti-pyschotic agents
Alpha adrenergic blockers ___________ arterioles.
vasodilate
What are 3 disorders that alpha adrenergic blockers are used for?
- HTN (hypertension)
- PVD (peripheral vascular disease)
- BPH (benign prostatic hypertrophy)
What changes occur in the body when alpha adrenergic blockers are taken?
- vasodilation
- relax smooth muscles of urethra to improve urine flow
What is the largest concern with alpha adrenergic blockers?
- they decrease the force of cardiac contraction which may predispose some clients to CHF (congestive heart failure) - this may result in reflex tachycardia
What changes occur in the body when beta adrenergic blockers are taken?
- heart rate slows
- bp decreases due to vasodilation
- decreases release of renin from the kidneys
- cardiac contraction force is decreased
What are 3 disorders that Beta Andrenergic blockers are used to treat?
- tachycardia
- hypertension
- CAD (coronary artery disease)
Like Alpha Adrenic Blockers, what is a major concern with Beta Adrenic Blockers?
certain clients can be predisposed to congestive heart failure
Sympathomimetic OR Sympatholytic?

Watch for tachycardia and hypertension.
Sympathomimetic
Sympathomimetic OR Sympatholytic?

Hypotension can result
Sympatholytic
Sympathomimetic OR Sympatholytic?

Use cautiously in clients with CAD or hypertensive disaese
Sympathomimetic
Sympathomimetic OR Sympatholytic?

Watch for reflex tachycardia
Sympatholytic
Sympathomimetic OR Sympatholytic?

Watch for bradycardia
Sympatholytic
Sympathomimetic OR Sympatholytic?

Used when a person is coding to increase BP and HR
Sympathomimetic
Sympathomimetic OR Sympatholytic?

Used for severe asthma attacks
Sympathomimetic
Sympathomimetic OR Sympatholytic?

Watch for signs of decreased cardiac output
Sympatholytic
Sympathomimetic OR Sympatholytic?

Not recommended for clients with COPD
Sympatholytic (specifically beta blockers)
Sympathomimetic OR Sympatholytic?

causes bronchodilation
Sympathomimetic
What drug group is said to activate the "Fight or Flight" response?
Adrenergic Agonist drugs (sympathomimetics)
What drug group is said to activate the "rest and digest" response?
Adrenergic antagonists
What body system do Cholinergic drugs stimulate?
parasympathetic nervous system
Cholinergic drugs mimic what neurotransmitter?
acetylcholine
What are the 2 types of cholinergic receptors?
1. muscarinic receptors that stimulate smooth muscle and slow heart rate
2. nicotinic receptors that affect the skeletal muscles
How do direct acting cholinergic drugs work?
they act directly on acytylcholine receptors
How do indirect-acting cholinergic drugs work?
they inhibit the action of acytylcholinesterase
What changes occur in the body when the cholinergic system is stimulated?
- heart rate decreases
- blood pressure decreases (due to vasodilation)
- bronchial secretions increase
- salivation increases
- peristalsis increases
- bladder tone increases
- sweating increases
- secretion of gastric acid increases
- urinary sphincter relaxes
- intra-ocular pressure is decreased
How do cholinergic antagonists work?
they inhibit the action of acetylcholine by competing with it for space on the receptors
What effect do you expect to see on the body with cholinergic antagonists?
- heart rate increases
- bronchodilation occurs
- bronchial secretions decrease
- salivation decreases
- gastrointestinal motility and gastric acid decrease
- bladder tone decreases
- urinary spincter tone increases
- intra-ocular pressure increases
Parasympathomimetic or Parasympatholytic?

Abdominal cramping
Parasympathomimetic
Parasympathomimetic or Parasympatholytic?

Diarrhea can occur
Parasympathomimetic
Parasympathomimetic or Parasympatholytic?

bronchoconstriction and increased bronchial secretions
Parasympathomimetic
Parasympathomimetic or Parasympatholytic?

"Cholinergic crisis" (respiratory arrest from increased secretions)
Parasympathomimetic
Parasympathomimetic or Parasympatholytic?

Dry mouth likely to occur
Parasympatholytic
Parasympathomimetic or Parasympatholytic?

Dehydration possible
Parasympatholytic
Parasympathomimetic or Parasympatholytic?

Constipation possible
Parasympatholytic
Parasympathomimetic or Parasympatholytic?

Urinary retention possible
Parasympatholytic
Parasympathomimetic or Parasympatholytic?

Intra-ocular pressure can increase; use cautiously in clients with glaucoma
Parasympatholytic
Parasympathomimetic or Parasympatholytic?

Blurry vision can occur
Parasympatholytic
IV dopamine and phenylephrine should be infused through a central venous line. Why?
Because if given through a peripheral line and infiltration occurs, the surrounding tissue will become vasoconstricted - could cause gangrene.
Over use of vasoconstricting nasal sprays can cause what?
rebound vasodilation of the nasal mucosa
Sympathetomimetic or Sympatholytic?

used to slow or stop contractions in preterm labor
sympathomimetic
Sympathetomimetic or Sympatholytic?

used to treat COPD
sympathomimetic
Parasympathomimetic or Parasympatholytic?

Used for early to middle Alzheimer's Disease
Parasympathomimetic
Parasympathomimetic or Parasympatholytic?

used to maintain muscle strength in Myasthenia Gravis
Parasympathomimetic
Parasympathomimetic or Parasympatholytic?

used to reduce intraocular pressure
Parasympathomimetic
Parasympathomimetic or Parasympatholytic?

used for irritable bowel sydrome
Parasympatholytic
Parasympathomimetic or Parasympatholytic?

Used for bronchodilation
Parasympatholytic
Parasympathomimetic or Parasympatholytic?

used to dry respiratory tract secretions
Parasympatholytic
Parasympathomimetic or Parasympatholytic?

Used for spastic bladder
Parasympatholytic
Parasympathomimetic or Parasympatholytic?

Can increase heart rate; used to treat bradycardia
Parasympatholytic
Parasympathomimetic or Parasympatholytic?

Can treat tremors in Parkinson's Disease and Parkinson like syndromes
Parasympatholytic
Parasympathomimetic or Parasympatholytic?

Used to dilate pupils for eye exams
Parasympatholytic