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27 Cards in this Set

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What is main target / effects of inhalation anesthetic agents?
Entire CNS including central medullary respiratory control / cardiovascular centers. Decreases stroke volume, CO, venous return, etc.
Does nitric oxide have high or low B/G solubility?

What does this mean?
NO has extremely low blood gas solubility; means it gets in and out of body very quickly
Is nitric oxide a potent anesthetic?
No, MAC is over 105 in humans (higher in animals); this means that even at 100% NO less than 50% patients are anesthetized.

Nitric oxide cannot make animal unconsciousness by itself...
If so ineffective at anesthetizing, why is NO used?
Causes '2nd Gas Effect' -> safe, optimizes other drugs, can use less of these other (more dangerous) drugs, increase uptake of other drugs
Is nitric oxide metabolized by liver?
No; so insoluble that it is just exhaled from body - unmetabolized - does not go to liver
Is halothane widely used now?
NO
Contraindications of halothane
* Unstable if exposed to UV
* Don't use in animals with head trauma, b/c incr. cranial BP
* Can cause malignant hypothermia
* don't use in sick animal (liver/kidney disease) b/c reduces organ perfusion
* Halothane has most cardiodepressant properties of all inhalation agents! -> drops CO, stroke vol., drops BP, most arrhythmogenic
The more insoluble an agent, _______________?
faster onset, exhaled readily
How much hepatic degradation do halogenated ethers undergo? Halothane?
Halogenated ethers (0.2-0.5%)
Halothane (20%)
Rank following in terms of potency (highest 1st):
Sevoflurane
Desflurane
Halothane
Isoflurane
Halothane (most potent & lowest MAC) > Isoflurane > Sevoflurane > Desflurane
What inhalational agent is somewhat irritating to respiratory tract?
isoflourene
What inhalational agent are very similar to isoflourene, but more expensive?
sevoflurane
What inhalational drug produces metabolite known as 'Compound A' on reaction with soda lime?
Sevoflurane

Compound A has no clinical significance...aside from causing renal necrosis in rats.
What inhalation agent has highest SVP?

Which is lowest?
desflurane 664 mm Hg <-- you can pack a whole lot more of this guy into confined space, than you can sevofl.

sevoflurane 160 mm Hg
Which inhalation agent contains preservative? (gives odor)
halothane
Which 2 inhalants have ~same SVP?
halothane 239 mm Hg
isoflurane 240 mm Hg
At sea level and room temperature, which can you achieve higher concentrations of : isoflurane, sevo, or desflurane?

What do vaporizers do?
At sea level and room temperature, you can achieve concentrations of :
21% sevo
32% halothane
32% isoflurane
86% desflurane

Vaporisers are used to deliver SAFE anaesthetic concentrations of inhalational agent
Which is only inhalation agent that is metabolized in significant degree?
Halothane (up to 20%)
Which has higher MAC: 1. halothane
2. desflurane 3. methoxyflurane
desflurane (MAC = 8) > halothane > methoxyflurane (0.23)

desflurane = least potent anesthetic; also fastest onset
T or F? Nitrous oxide is only half as potent in animals as it is in humans?
True
What percent of nitrous oxide should you never go past?
66%, 100% is lethal
How much isoflurane is actually metabolized in the body?
0.17%
What are some things to consider when looking at nitrous oxide toxicity?
Bone marrow depression and peripheral neuropathies (B12)
Possible teratogenic risk
How much sevoflurane is metabolized in the body?
3-5%
Which inhalation agent has extremely low solubility coefficients in blood, oil, and body tissues and similar to those of nitrous oxide? (Very fast recovery)
Desflurane
What does halothane contain that acts as a preservative?
0.01% thymol
Reduces GI motility Reduces splanchnic blood flow by up to 33%
Halothane