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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
___ is the uncontrolled growth of human cells
___ is the movement of cancer cells to other areas of the body
___ is the movement of cells to other areas of the body and then colonize
Tx of cancer
Surgery, radiation, pharm agents
Anti-neoplastic agents target what type of cell?
Cells that are rapidly dividing
Cell cycle specific agents
- Act on rapidly replicating cells
- Antimetabolites
- Mitotic spindle inhibitors
- Enzyme inhibitors
Non-specific cell cycle agents
- Act on all cells
- Bind directly to DNA
__ & __ are highly selective cancer treating agents
Kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies
Alkylating agents (3)
Add alkyl groups to DNA and can damage any large molecule

1- Cyclophosphamide: Prodrug; resistance leads to dec cell uptake and inc. DNA repair
2- Lomustine: Prodrug; can cross BBB
3- Cisplatin: Binds to and causes cross-linking of DNA; oto/retinal toxicity
Doxorubicin and other "rubicins"
- Intercalates w/ DNA- blocks DNA/RNA synthesis
- Can form free radicals that can break DNA
- SE: heart muscle degeneration
Dactinomycin & bleomycin
- Given by IV
- Intercalates w/ DNA and interferes w/ mRNA synthesis

*Bleomycin can cause pulmonary fibrosis
Antimetabolites (5); folate antagonists, purine and pyrimidine analogs
1- Methotrexate=> inhibits DNA synthesis
2- 5-fluoruracil (5FU)=> enzyme inhibitor
3- Gemicitibine=> enzyme inhibitor
4- Cytarabine=> " "
5- 6- mercaptopurine=> " "
Folate antagonist
Dihydrofolate reductase catalyzes what two reactions
Folic acid--> dihydrofolic acid--> THFA
Pyrimidine analogs (3)
1- 5-fluoruracil (5FU)=> enzyme inhibitor; prevents thymodilic acid formation
2- Gemicitibine=> enzyme inhibitor (DNA polymerase)
3- Cytarabine=> " "
Purine analog
6-mercaptopurine (6MP)
- enzyme inhibitor
T/F The pyrimidine and purine analogs are prodrugs
Microtubule inhibitors (4)
1- Vincristine
2- Vinblastine
3- Eribulin
4- Paclitaxel: forms abnormal microtubules
Topoisomerase inhibitors (2)
1- Etoposide: inhibits topo II
2- Topotecan: inhibits topo I
The microtubule and topoisomerase inhibitors are derived from what?
Plant alkaloids
Anti-androgens (5)
1- Flutamide: blocks androgen receptor
2- Nilutamide: " "
3- Bicalutamide: " "
4- Abiraterone: INHIBITS the enzyme required for testosterone synthesis
5- Leuprolide: ACTIVATES a receptor for GnRH; prolonged use leads to dec testosterone
Anti-estrogens (5)
1- Anastrozole: An aromatase (enzyme) inhibitor; stops estradiol formation from test
2- Letrozole: " "
3- Tamoxifen: BLOCKS estrogen receptor; SE are retinal damage and inc. cataracts
4- Fulvestrant: " "
5- Prednisone: for lymphomas and leukemias
Kinase Inhibitors (2)
1- Imitinib: Inhibits the kinase that shuts down apoptosis (BCR-Abl tyrosine kinase) in CML (axitinib, sunitinib, lapatinib)
2- Geftinib: Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor=> ENZYME inhibitor; (erlotinib)
Proteosome Inhibitor
- inhibits the proteosome activity in multiple myeloma
Monoclonal Antibodies (3)
1- Trastuzumab: mab vs. HER2 site in breast cancer
2- Bevacizumab: mab vs. VEGF
3- Rituximab: mab vs. CD20 site in lymphoma cells
Newly introduced cancer agents (7)
1- Abiraterone
2- Brentuximab
3- Crizotinib
4- Ipilimumab
5- Vandetinib
6- Vemurafinib
7- Vismodegib
Curable cancers
ALL, Hodgkins lymphoma, testicular carcinoma, chorocarcinoma, osteosarcoma, Wilm's tumor
T/F All cancer cells divide rapidly