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68 Cards in this Set

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Acetylcholine
The principal neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system. It activates cholinergic receptor sites throughout the body. Its action is blocked by anticholinergic drugs.
Adrenergic
A receptor for the sympathetic nervous system that is activated by the neurotransmitter norepinephrine. 3 types: alpha, beta 1, and beta 2
Analgesic
A drug that selectivley suppresses pain without producing sedation.
Antibiotic
A drug used to treat infection by killing (bactericidal) or inhibiting the growth (bacteriostatic) of disease causing bacteria.
Anticholinergic
A drug that opposes the action of acetylcholine at the site of cholinergic receptors. The ABCs of anticholinergic side effects: A-anticholinergic B-blurred vision, bladder retention, C-constipation, D-dry mouth.
Antidepressent
A psychotherapeutic drug that produces mood elevation
Antiemetic
A drug that prevents or relieves vomiting.
Anti-inflammatory
A drug used to decrease symptoms of inflammation by inhibiting the release of prostaglandins.
Antineoplastic
A drug that is selectively toxic to rapidly dividing cells such as malignant cells and is used to treat cancer. (neoplasm means tumor)
Antitussive
A drug that suppresses coughing
Bactericidal
an adjective used to describe a drug that kills
Bacteriostatic
an adjective used to describe a drug that inhibits the growth of bateria but does not kill them.
Bioavailability
That portion of the total drug dose, after absorption, that is actually able to interact with receptors and produce a therapeutic effect.
Cholinergic
a receptor for the parasympathetic nervous system that is activated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Disinfectant
An agent (not a drug) that is used to kill microorganisms on surfaces and instruments.
Expectorant
a drug that thins mucus in the respiratory tract to make it easier to cough it up
Loading Dose
if the therapeutic dose of the drug is desired immediately to treat a medical disease, a large dose is may be administered at once.
Pathogen
an agent (bacteria, virus, etc.) that causes a disease
Placebo
used in double blind clinical trials as sugar pills or injections of sterile saline solution
Peak Level
the highest serum level achieved following a single dose of a drug, as determined by a blood test.
prophylaxis
(keep guard before) is admininstered before the onset of a disease or other condition to prevent its occurrence (e.g., birth control, flu shots, and vaccines)
Racemic
a drug that is composed of equal amounts of dextrorotary and levorotary isomers
Trough Levels
the lowest serum level of a drug that occurs just before the next dose is to be given, as determined by a blood test.
Vasodialator
a drug that relaxes the smooth muscle of blood vessels to improve blood flow
Vasopressor
a drug that constricts the smooth muscle of blood vessels to increase the blood pressure
Mydriatic
a drug that dialiates the pupil of the eye.
Levorotary
describes the position of a drug molecule when light passed throught it is bent to the left (levodopa or L-dopa)
Components of a Perscription
1. Identyfing information about the perscriber.
2. Identifying information about the patient
3. Date
4.Rx
5. Drug Name
6. Drug Strength
7.Quantity to be dispensed
8. Directions for use
9. Signature line
10. Refills
11. Generic Substitution
12. DEA number
Acne Vulgaris
form of acne commonly seen during adolescence.
Benzoyl peroxide
Benzac, clearasil
benzoyl peroxide and clindamycin
BenzaClinan antibiotic/keratolytic combination
isotretionoin
Accutane
salicylic acid
Clearasil Medicated Deep Cleanser, Pernox Lathing Abradant Scrub...
tretinoin
Retina-A, Avita
clindamycin
Cleocin
erythromycin
Eryderm
tetracycline
Achromyscin
Minocin
Minocycline
Acne Rosacea
metronidazole (MetroGel), characterized by pustules with erythema and small, dilated blood vessels of the face. Adult form of acne
Psoriasis
chronic skin condition that is characterized by scaley, raised, silvery-red patches on the skin.
Coal tar
(AguaTar, Denorex, Tegrin) used to treat Psoriasis
tazarotene
Tazorac, used to treat Psoriasis
calcipotriene
Dovonex, used to treat psoriasis
cyclosporine
Neoral, psoriasis
hydroxyurea
Hydrea,psoriasis
methotrexate
Rheumatrex and Trexall, psoriasis
methoxsalen
Oxsoralen-Ultra: Oxsoralen + UV light= PUVA,
Topical Antibiotics
gentamicin (garamycin), Bacitracin (Baciguent), mupirocin (Bactroban), neomysin (Myciguent), Neosporin (bacitracin, neomyscin, polymyxin B), Cortisporin (hydrocortisone, neomycin, polymyxin B)
Anti-fungal/Anti-yeast
clotrimazole (Desenex, Lotrimin), nystalin (Mycostatin),ketoconazole (Nizoral), oxiconazole (Oxistat), terbinafine (Lamisil), itrazconazole (Sporanox), Lotrisone (betamethasone + clostrimazole combination- often given as a "blanket treatment" to cover "everything" when the clinician doesn't know what is causing the rash!), nystatin and triamcincolone (Mytrex-same type of corticosteroid/anti-fungal drug combination as Lotrisone), amphotericin B (Fungizone)
Topical Steroids
Diprolene (betamethasone), Lidex, Topicort (desoximetasone), dexamethasone (Decadron), fluocinonide (Lidex), halcinonide (Halog), Cortaid, Aristocort, triamcinolone (Kenalog, Aristocort), fluticasone (Cutivate), hydrocortisone (Cortaid, Hycort, Dermolate, Dermacort), methylprednisolone (Medrol), Celestone (betamethasone)
Antiviral Drugs/ Herpes Topicals
salicylic acid (compound W) and monochloroacetic acid (MCA)- for warts, Zovirax (acyclovir-for herpes), Capsaicin (Zostrix-to relieve certain skin pains), Systemic: Famvir (famciclovir), Valtrex (Valacyclovir)
Pediculoides/anti-scabies
crotamiton (Eurax), Lindane (Kwell), permethrin (Nix, RID), RID (pyrethrin)
others:
diphenhydramine (Benadryl), calamine, Caladryl (calamine+ Benadryl, which is diphenhydramine), Aveena, vita. A & D, Desitin, silver sulfadiazine (Silvadene), aloe vera gel, prednisone (Deltasone or Liqui-Pred), Rogaine (minoxidil), Propecia (finesteride)
Topical OTC Drugs for acne
Keratolytics, Astringents, Anti-bacterials, Antiseptics (ex. benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid)
Topical Vitamin A-Type Drugs
these stimulate epithelial cells to muliply rapidly and slough-off (preventing stagnation and clogging of the pores)
-tretinoin topical (Avita, RetinA)
Topical Antibiotics
erythromycin (Eryderm)and tetracycline (Achromycin)
Topical Antibiotic/Keratolytic combinations
BenzaClin (benzoyl peroxide and clindamycin)
Other drugs for acne
Oral Antibiotics
-minocycline (Minocin)
Oral Vitamin A-type drugs
-isotretinoin (Accutane)
Coal Tar
Treats Psoriasis-helps to slow the turnover rate of cell growth (ex. Tegrin and Denorex)
Psoriasis
Topical Vitamin A-type Drugs
-tazarotene
Topical Vitamin D-type Drugs
-thought to slow abnormal cell growth
-calcipotriene (Dovonex) man made form of vitamin D, regular OTC will not work for treatment
Topical Corticosteroids
Supress inflammation and itching
methotrexate
Trexall, Rheumatrex is used for acute cases
cyclosporin
Neoral-is chemotherapy drug which suppresses T Lymphocytes (in many ways psoriasis acts like a benign, but troublesome cancer of the skin)
Psoralens
sensitize the skin to the effects of UV light
-methoxsalen (Oxsoralen-Ultra)
Drugs to treat infections of the skin
treatment of minor abrasions/infections of the skin
Topical Antibiotic creams, ointments, lotions:
-bacitracin (Baciguent)
-gentamicin (Garamycin)
-neomycin (Myciguent)
Combination Antibiotics creams or ointments
-Neosporin (bacitracin, neomysin, polymyxin-B)
Anti-Fungals-end in "azole"
Topicals are for treatment of superficial fungal infections such as ringworn, athletes foot and jock itch
-clotrimazole (Desenex, Lotrimin)
Steroid + antifungal Combinations are often used because doctors are unsure if a rash ir fungal or allergic
-Lotrisone (betamethasone and clotrimazole)
Systemic Anti-Fungal Drugs: treat fungal infections of the nails (topicals won't work)
-Ketoconazole (nizoral)
Yeast Infections
Topical Agents
-nystatin (Mycostatin)
Combination products (antifungal and steroid combinations are popular)
-Mytrex (nystatin and triamcinolone)
Viral Infections of the Skin
Topical antivirals
-acyclovir (Zovirax): treatment for HSV I
Topical Drugs for common warts (keratolytics)
-monochloroacetic acid (MCA)
-salicylic acid (Compound-W)
Topical Pain Relievers
-capsaicin (Zostrix) is a derivative of the chili pepper used to treat pain of Herpes Zoster (Shingles)
Systemic Antiviral preparations. The most common are oral antiviral preparations of the Acyclovir class. Used to treat HSVII (Genital Herpes) and Shingles