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32 Cards in this Set

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What is drug interaction
The modification of the action of one drug by another drug
Why is studying drug interactions important
Because while judicous use of multiple drugs may be benifical to the patient ,adverse drug interactions can be harmfull or reduce the effect of a drug
What are the three types of drugs likely to precipitate drug interactions
a) drugs that are highly bound to plasma proteins as they are highly likely to displace other drugs from protein binding sites
b) drugs witch altar (stimulate or inhibit ) the metabolism of
another drug
c)Drugs which affect the renal function and alter the reanal clearance of other drugs
Name the three most common mechanisms for drug interaction
a) pharmaceutics
b) pharmacodynamic
c)Pharmacokinetic
What are pharmaceutical interactions ?
Phisiochemical interactions either of a drug and intervenous infusion solution or of two drugs in a solution such interactions result in a loss of activity of one of the drugs
Pharmaceutical interactions make it essential to do what
Check before adding to infusions or crystalloid or dextrose solutions
Where inside the body might Pharmaceutical interactions take place
The lumen of the gut
what are the two types of drugs likely to be interacted with
a) drugs with a steep dose to response curve
b) drugs which have a low toxic to therapeutic ratio
What are pharmacodynamic interactions
An interaction where a drug alters the effect of another at its site of action either directly or indirectly
what are the three types of pharmacodynamic interaction?
a) antagonism at the same site
b) synergism at the same site
c) summation or synergism of similar effects at different sites
What is a pharmakinetic interaction>
where a drugs absorbtion distribution or elimination is altered by another drug ?
What might the effect of drugs that chelates metals on the absorption of calcium, magnesium or iron containing compounds
Reduced
What is the result of of the displacement of one drug from another at a protein binding site?
an increase in the circulation concentration of the unbound(free-Drug) and thus an increase in effect
List three common drugs which displace drugs at the protein binding site
a)salictylates
b) sulphonamides
c)phenylbutazone
What else can cause a decreased binding to protein site
Disease states such as hypoproteinaemia
What is the result of the displacement of Phenytoin by phenylbutazone
Phenytoin toxicity
What is the result of the displacement of warfarin by clofibrate
haemorrhage
What is the result of the displacement of Tolbutamide
hypoglycaemia
give an example of uptake inhibition
The inhibition of he uptake into adrenergic nerves of bethanidine ,guanethidine and debrisoquine by the trycyclic antibiotics
What happens when the metabolisim of one drug is increased by another drug
The conc of drug in the blood drops and so dose its effect and duration of its effect
What dose and increase of drug metabolisim often cause an increase in ?
Endoplasmic reticulim in hepatocytes
What things in the diet might decrease the absorbtion of a drug
food in the stomach and dietary calcium
What in the diet might destroy the coating of a drug ?
Acidic drinks/food
What vitamin can decrease the effectiveness of some anticoagulant medications?
Vit K
What effect can sibutamine have on the appetite
Decrease it
What effect does orlistat hace on the absorption of fat ?
decrease it
What effect might laxatives have on nutritional absorption ?
Decrease it
What effect can antacids have in electrolyte absorption?
Decrease it
What effect can anticonvulsants have on folate absorbtion
decrease it
What effect can antibiotics have on the production of Vitamin K
decrease it
what effect can contraceptives have on the conc. of Vit B6 and folate in the body ?
decrease it
What drugs can increase the loss of nutrients
Diuretics and aspirin