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18 Cards in this Set

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How much fluid is filtered from the kidney everyday in a healthy adult?
180L
What percentage of Na must be reabsorbed by the kidney to maintain proper Na balance?
99%
What do diuretics do?
increase the urine volume by removing Na and water from the body. Also decrease overall BP
What are the 4 types of diuretics?
1. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
2. Loop diuretics
3. Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics
4. Potassium Sparing diuretics
What are the carbonic anyhydrase inhibitor agents?
1. Acetzolaminde (Diamox)
2. Methazolamide
What is the MOA of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors?
Carbonic Anhydrase is required for reaborption of Na Bicarbonate in the PT. So CAIs inhibit it and promote the excretion of Na, Water and Bicarbonate
What is the diuretic Acetazolamide (Diamox) mostly used to treat? What are its adverse effects?
Not a diuretic really.
used for glaucoma and altitude sickness.

-Adverse effects:
Metabolic acidosis, Hypokalemia
What is the MOA of loop diuretics?
Inhibit the Na+/K+/2Cl- symporter in the
THICK ASCENDING LIMB of the Loop of Henle
What is the most potent diuretic?
Loop Diuretics
What is a negative aspect of Loop diuretics?
Excrete other electrolytes needed by the body
What must you consider with dosing of loop diuretics?
They are not interchangeable between oral and IV mode
What are some examples of Loop Diuretics?
Furosemide (Lasix) Bumetanide Torsemide
List the adverse effects of Loop Diuretics?
HYPO -
tension, natremia, chloremia, kalemia, magnesemia, calcemia

OTOTOXICITY!!
What is the MOA of Thiazide Diuretics? What is one negative effect?
Directly inhibits Na+/Cl- symporter in the DT. Increases urinary excretion of other electrolytes
What are the contraindications of Thiazide Diuretics? Cautions?
Sulfa allergy,
fluid/electrolyte imbalance,
Severe Renal disease.
Caution with pts with DM and Gout
What are the adverse effects of Thiazide Diuretics?
HYPO -
tension, natermia, kalemia, magnesemia.

HYPERCALCEMIA,

increased uric acid,
increased plasma glucose
What is the MOA of Potassium-Sparing Diuretics?
Acts at the CT, promotes up to only 2% of Na and water excretion
What are the adverse effects of Potassium Sparing Diuretics?
Hypotension
HYPERKALEMIA
lethargy and confusion