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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
loss of too much water from body
a drug that increases the secretion of urine(water, electrolytes, and waste products) by the kidneys
retention of excess fluid
fluid removed from the blood through kidney function
an increase in introcular pressure
introcular pressure
pressure within the eye
high blood level of potassium
low blood level of potassium
long tubular structure that is the functional part of the kidney
orthostatic hypotension
dizziness and light-headedness after standing in one place for a long time
postural hypotension
dizziness and light-headedness when rising suddenly from a sitting or lying position
a complex produced by living cells that catalyzes chemical reactions in organic matter
an element or compound that when melted or dissolved in water or another solvent dissaciates into ions & able to conduct an electric current
an atom or group of atoms that has acquired an electrical charge through the gain or loss of electron(s)
the fluid removed from the body
aqueous humor
clear watery fluid circulating in the anterior chamber of the eye
numbness, tingling
photosensitivity reactions
exaggerated sunburn reaction when the skin is exposed to sunlight or ultraviolet light
lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inablility to eat
crystals in the urine
abormal increase in hydrogen ion concentration in the body
absence of urine
accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity
glucose in the urine
damage to the hearing organs from a toxic subtance
low urine production
breast enlargement in male
heart rate is less than 60/min(slow)
state or quality of dullness, prolonged sleepiness, drowiness
describe the action of diruretics
increase the secretion of urine by the kidneys
name some diuretics
carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
loop diuretics
osmotic diurects
potassium-sparing diurectics
thiazides and related
what is carbonic anhydrase
an enzyme that produces free hydrogen ions which are exchanged for sodium ions in the kidneys
what is the action of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
stop the excretion of sodium, potassium, bicarbonate and water
-also decrease production of aqueous humor in the eye
what are the uses of Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
Treatment of edema caused by CHF
Treatment of edema caused by drugs
-Used for some types of epilepsy
Used in glaucoma
what are the Adverse Reactions of Carbonic
Anhydrase Inhibitors
 Adverse reactions are rare in the short term
 Long-term use may result in:
• Fever
• Rash
• Numbness
• Tingling
• Photosensitivity
• Anorexia
• Crystalluria
• Acidosis
Contraindications and Precautions of Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
 Contraindicated with electrolyte imbalance, severe kidney or liver disease, anuria, or chronic noncongestive angle-closure glaucoma
 Used cautiously in patients with renal failure
 Used cautiously during pregnancy
Loop Diuretics
work by making the kidneys pass out more fluid by interfering with the transport of salt and water across certain cells in a structure called the loop of Henle
action of loop diuretics
 Increase the excretion of sodium and chloride by inhibiting reabsorption of these ions in the loop of Henle
Adverse Reactions to Loop Diuretics
 Anorexia
 Nausea and vomiting
 Dizziness
 Rash
 Postural hypotension
 Orthostatic hypotension
 Photosensitivity reactions
 Glycosuria
 Diabetics may note an increase in blood glucose levels
 Hypokalemia
Contraindications and Precautions
of Loop Diuretics
 Contraindicated with severe electrolyte imbalance, hepatic coma, anuria, and in infants
 Used cautiously in patients with renal dysfunction and in pregnancy or lactation
 Used cautiously in children and in patients with liver disease, diabetes, lupus, or diarrhea
Osmotic diuretics
Can be filtered by the glomerulus but not reabsorbed by the renal tubule
Osmotic diuretics
Do not alter electrolyte or acid/base balance
Adverse Reactions to Osmotic Diuretics
 Urea and mannitol administered by IV
 Glycerin and isosorbide administered orally
 IV administration may result in a rapid fluid and electrolyte imbalance, especially when these drugs are administered before surgery to a patient in a fasting state
Contraindications, Precautions, and Interactions of Osmotic Diuretics
 Contraindicated in electrolyte imbalance, severe dehydration,
anuria or intracranial bleeding
 Used cautiously with liver or kidney disease
 Used cautiously during pregnancy
 Additive hypotensive effect when given with another antihypertensive drug or nitrate
Adverse Reactions to Thiazides
and Related Diuretics
 Drug interactions and incompatibilities
• Body as a whole – Weakness
• Alcohol causes dehydration, drowsiness, and dizziness
• OTC cold/flu preparations
• Diabetics may note change in blood sugar (increase)
• Photosensitivity may occur
Contraindications and Precautions of Thiazides and Related Diuretics
Contraindicated in patients with electrolyte imbalances, renal decompensation, hepatic coma, or anuria
May cause allergic reaction or bronchial asthma in patients sensitive to tartrazine
Use cautiously during pregnancy and lactation
Use cautiously in children, patients with lupus, diabetes, or kidney/liver disease
Interactions of Thiazides
and Related Diuretics
Additive hypotensive effects when used with alcohol, other antihypertensive drugs, or nitrates
Use with allopurinol may increase hypersensitivity to allopurinol
Effects of anesthetic may be increased
Effects of anticoagulants may be decreased
Increase incidence of gout
May prolong antineoplastic-induced leukopenia
Patient Management Issues of Diurectics
Frequent urination in the night needs to be expected and explained
Vital signs, including weight, need monitoring
Renal function needs to be watched
Areas of edema should be inspected to evaluate drug effectiveness
Electrolyte levels are checked often (especially potassium)
Educating the Patient and Family
Overdose – Acute loss of fluids and electrolytes
•No antidote
•Electrolyte replacement
•Support respiration