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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Identify 2 fundamental divisions of the nervous system
Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
3 Primary Functions of the nervous system
1) Recognizing changes in the internal & external environment.
2) Processing & integrating the environmental changes perceived.
3) Reacting to the environmental changes by producing an action/response.
Area of the brain associated with anxiety, sleep, and wakefulness
Limbic System & RAS (reticular activating system)
Primary neurotransmitters
norepinephrine (NE) and acetylcholine (Ach)
Alpha1- vasoconstriction, dilation of pupils
Alpha2- Inhibits the release of NE
Beta1- Increase heart rate and force of contraction, release of renin
Beta2-Inhibition of smooth muscle
Nicotinic- Stimulate smooth muscle & gland secretion
Muscarinic- Decrease heart rate & force of contraction/stimulation of smooth muscle & gland secretions
Classes of autonomic drugs
1) Sympathomimetics
2) Sympatholytics/Adrenergic Antagonist
3) Parasympathomimetics
4) Anticholinergics
Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system.
Sympatholytics/Adrenergic Antagonist
Inhibit sympathetic nervous system
Stimulate parasympathetic nervous system
Inhibit parasympathetic nervous system
What produces the similar/same response as a Sympathomimetic? What is different?
Anticholinergic. Sympathomimetics are more targeted and have a more widespread therapeutic application due to the alpha/beta receptors.
What are Alpha1 drugs used to treat? Name most common.
nasal congestion, hypotension (can cause mydriasis during ophthalmic exams)- phenylephrine
What are Alpha2 druges used to treat?
What are Beta1 drugs used to treat?
cardiac arrest, heart failure, shock
What are Beta2 drugs used to treat?
asthma, premature labor contractions
Which causes more adverse side effects- slective or non-selective drugs?
non-selective drugs
Which class of autonomic drug is the most widely prescribed?
Adrenergic antagonists (sympatholytic)
ending in "lol"
Beta Blocker
Direct Acting Parasympathomimetic
- Rest-Digest
- Poorly absorbed in GI tract
- Longer duration of action than Ach
- Do not cross blood/brain barrier
Rest-Digest response
Muscarinic Agonist
direct-acting parasympathomimetics
Indirect-Acting Parasympathomimetics
- Inhibit the action of AchE/prolong action of Ach
- Non-selective
Cholinersterate Inhibitor
indirect-acting parasympathomimetic
Used to treat Myasthenia gravis
cholinesterase inhibitors
Prototype drug: Prazosin
- selective alpha1- adrenergic agonist.
- competes with NE
-reduces blood pressure
- can cause orthostatic hypotension and reflex tachycardia.
Prototype drug: Phenylephrine
- nasal decongestant
- selective alpha-adrenergic agonist
- side effects uncommon
- ophthalmic preps can cause narrow-angle glaucoma, mydriatic effect
- contraindications: acute pancreatitis, heart disease, hepatitis, narrow-angle glaucoma.
Prototype drug: Bethanechol
- muscarinic (direct-acting parasympathomimetic) cholinergic receptor agonist
- nonobstructive urinary retention agent
- Pregnancy category C
- Oral/SubQ doses are not interchangable
- Contraindications: asthma, epilepsy, parkinsons.
Therapeutic uses for Anticholinergics
- GI disorders
- Ophthalmic procedures
- Cardiac rythym abnormalities
- Preanesthesia
- Asthma
Prototype drug: Atropine
- Muscarinic cholinergic receptor agonist
- Never admin IM
- Oral/SubQ doses are not interchangable
- Pregnancy category C
- Contraindications: glaucoma, obstructive GI disorders, paralytic ileus, bladder neck obstruction, BPH, myasthenia gravis, cardiac insufficiency, acute hemorrhage.
Which class of autonomic drugs produce high incidence of side effects?
3 most significant catecholamines
epinephrine, NE, dopamine
Catecholamines are
sympathetic acting substances that cannot be given orally due to breakdown in gastric system
Dopaminergic receptors
heart, kidney, brain- when stimulated increase blood flow
Inactivation factors to prevent a prolonged effect of a drug
Reuptake, Degradation, Diffusion
Prototypes for mixed action (both direct and indirect acting) Andrenergic
Adrenaline (epinephrine), Ventolin (albuterol)
Prototype: Inderal (propranolol)
beta blocker
Tensilon (edrophonium chloride)
treatment of Myasthenia Gravis
Protoype: Tacrine (Cognex)
Anticholinergic used to treat Parkinsons