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48 Cards in this Set

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Brands of salicylates?
Bayer
Ecotrin

Doan's Backache Pills
Therapeutic effects of salicylates?
antipyretics
nonopioid analgesics
antiinflammatory
antithrombotic
hematologic
Indications of salicylates?
inflammatory disorders
including:
rheumatoid arthritis
osteoarthritis
mild to moderate pain
fever
aspirin: prophylaxis of
transient ischemic
attacks and MI
MOA of salicylates?

Produce analgesia and reduce
inflammation and fever by?
inhibiting production of prostaglandins
MOA of salicylates?

aspirin only: how does it affect platelet aggregation?
decreases it
Therapeutic effects of salicylates are?
analgesia
reduction of inflammation
reduction of fever
aspirin: decreased incidence
of transient ischemic
attacks and MI
General information:
Patients who have asthma, allergies, and nasal polyps or who are allergic to ________ are at an increased risk for developing a hypersensitivity reaction
tartrazine
Concerning Pain...what should the nurse assess?
assess pain and limitation of movement, note type, location, and intensity before and at the peak
Concerning Fever...what should the nurse assess?

diaphoresis
tachycardia
malaise
chills
assess fever and note associated signs...what are the signs of fever?
Lab Test Considerations...which functions should be monitored?

increased:
serum AST
ALT
alkaline
especially with plasma concentrations exceed 25 mg/100 mL...may return to normal despite continued use or active liver disease
phosphatase
hepatic for symptoms of hepatotoxicity...may lab studies might be increased?
Children with Kawasaki disease need salicylate levels periodically monitored with prolonged high-dose therapy
!
Aspirin prolongs bleeding time for 4-7 days and, in large doses, may cause prolonged?

hematocrit
prothrombin time...what should be monitored periodically in prolonged high-dose therapy to assess for GI blood loss
Toxicity and overdose with aspirin...symptoms are?
tinnitus
headache
hyperventilation
agitation
mental confusion
lethargy
diarrhea
sweating
(if these symptoms occur, withhold meds and notify physician immediately)
How should aspirin be administered?

absorbed
after meals or with food or an antacid to minimize gastric irritation....food slows but does not alter the total amount?
Do not take antacids within 2-2 hours of?
enteric-coated tablets
Instruct patient to take salicylates with?

15-30 minutes
full glass of water and to remain in an upright position for how long?
What ear condition should patient report?
tinnitus
What gum problem should patients report?
unusual bleeding
What integumentary condition should patients report?
bruising
What bowel movement characteristic should patient report?
black, tarry stools
How long may fever last before it should be reported to physician?
longer than 3 days
Mixing alcohol and aspirin may cause?
gastric irritation
Three or more glasses of alcohol per day while taking aspirin may increase the risk of?
GI bleeding
Caution patient against taking aspirin with which 2 meds for more than a few days unless prescribed by physician?
acetaminophen
NSAIDs
Teach patients on a sodium-restricted diet to avoid?
effervescent tablets or buffered-aspirin preparations
Tablets with an acetic (vinegar-like) odor should be?
discarded
Aspirin may need to be withheld for how long before surgery?
1 week
CDC recommends against giving aspirin to children or adolescents with? (3)

Reye's syndrome
varicella (chickenpox) influenza-like illness
viral illness... because of a possible association with?
Effectiveness of therapy can be demonstrated by? (5)
relief of mild to moderate
discomfort
increased ease of joint
movement
reduction of fever
prevention of transient
ischemic attacks
prevention of MI
About how many weeks before effectiveness of aspirin noticed?
2-3 weeks
Aspirin is what kind of agent?
coagulation modifier agent
Aspirin also serves as an?
antiplatelet
Patients should not take aspirin if allergic to the following?
salycylates
asthma
GI bleeding or bleeding
disorders
children under 12yo or
flulike
lactation
patients with vitamin K
deficiency
peptic ulcer diseease
MOA for aspirin as an antiplatelet?
inhibits cyclooxygenase.. then thromboxane results...
blood vessel dilation results...which results in?
prevention of platelet aggregation
MOA in blood vessels?
need higher doses of aspirin greater than?
80 mg daily to inhibit cyclooxygenase and prostacyclin
Aspirin and what other med produces additive antiplatelet activity?
dipyridamole
Aspirin and NSAIDs potentiate?
bleeding
If a patient is allergic to aspirin, she may be allergic to?
NSAIDs
Salicylism or chronic salycylate intoxication can occur as low as?
150 micrograms/ml
Salicyclate intoxication can cause?
cardiovascular symptoms
increased heart rate
GI problems
n&v
diarrhea
metabolic condition
sweat
thirst
hyperventilation (children)
CNS disturbances
tinnitus (adults)
hearing loss (adults)
vision dimming
headache
dizziness
confusion
lassitude
drowsiness (children)
Other possible effects of salicylate intoxication are?
metabolic acidosis
respiratory alkalosis
hypoglycemia (life-threatenin
If salicylate intoxication occurs, what is the treatment... what syrup should be given?

gastric lavage and activated charcoal...these interventions reduce salicylate absorption
IPECAC syrup if patient is
awake and alert...then start what two things?
After ipecac syrup, gastric lavage, and charcoal have been started on patient with salycylate intoxication, what should be implemented immediately?

arterial pH
blood gases
electrolytes
serum creatinine
BUN
blood glucose
appropriate fluid replacement and electrolyte therapy...what lab test should be done to ascertain which elements are missing (6)?
To enhance salicylate elimination, alkaline diuresis is started...this is an IV administration of?
sodium bicarbonate to alkalinize the urine to a pH of 7.5 or more with sufficient urine flow
Hemodialysis may be started for salicylate intoxication.
okay
Supportive measures for salycylate intoxication includes...to avoid hypotension and/or hemorrhagic complications, what can be started?
fluids
transfusions
possible vitamin K injections
Supportive measures for salycylate intoxication includes...to avoid respiratory depression, patient may require assissted?
pulmonary ventilation and oxygen
Supportive measures for salycylate intoxication includes...to avoid seizures, start IV administration of a?
benzodiazepine or short-acting barbituate