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48 Cards in this Set

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A common side effects of INF treatment is?
Neutropenia
Antimicrobial prophylaxis for a history of recurrent UTIs
TMP-SMZ
Antimicrobial prophylaxis for Gonorrhea
Ceftriaxone
Antimicrobial prophylaxis for Meningococcal infection
Rifampin (DOC), minocycline
Antimicrobial prophylaxis for PCP
TMP-SMZ (DOC), aerosolized pentamidine
Antimicrobial prophylaxis for Syphilis
Benzathine penicillin G
Are Aminoglycosides Teratogenic?
YES
Are Ampicillin and Amoxicillin penicillinase resistant?
NO
Are Carbenicillin, Piperacillin, and Ticarcillin penicillinase resistant?
NO
Are Methicillin, Nafcillin, and Dicloxacillin penicillinase resistant?
YES
Clinical use of Isoniazid (INH)?
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the only agent used as solo prophylaxis against TB
Common side effects associated with Clindamycin include?
Pseudomembranous colitis (C. difficile), fever, diarrhea
Common toxicities associated with Fluoroquinolones?
GI upset, Superinfections, Skin rashes, Headache, Dizziness
Common toxicities associated with Griseofulvin are…...?
Teratogenic, Carcinogenic, Confusion, Headaches
Describe the MOA of Interferons (INF)
Glycoproteins from leukocytes that block various stages of viral RNA and DNA synthesis
Do Tetracyclines penetrate the CNS?
Only in limited amounts
Does Ampicillin or Amoxicillin have a greater oral bioavailability?
AmOxicillin has greater Oral bioavailability
Does Amprotericin B cross the BBB?
NO
Does Foscarnet require activation by a viral kinase?
NO
Foscarnet toxicity?
Nephrotoxicity
Ganciclovir associated toxicities?
Leukopenia, Neutropenia, Thrombocytopenia, Renal toxicity
How are INFs used clinically?
Chronic Hepatitis A and B, Kaposi's Sarcoma
How are Sulfonamides employed clinically?
Gram +, Gram -, Norcardia, Chlamydia
How are the HIV drugs used clinically?
Triple Therapy' 2 Nucleoside RT Inhibitors with a Protease Inhibitor
How are the Latent Hypnozoite (Liver) forms of Malaria (P. vivax, P.ovale) treated?
Primaquine
How can Isoniazid (INH)-induced neurotoxicity be prevented?
Pyridoxine (B6) administration
How can the toxic effects fo TMP be ameliorated?
With supplemental Folic Acid
How can Vancomycin-induced 'Red Man Syndrome' be prevented?
Pretreat with antihistamines and a slow infusion rate
How do Sulfonamides act on bacteria?
As PABA antimetabolites that inhibit Dihydropteroate Synthase, Bacteriostatic
How do the Protease Inhibitors work?
Inhibt Assembly of new virus by Blocking Protease Enzyme
How does Ganciclovir's toxicity relate to that of Acyclovir?
Ganciclovir is more toxic to host enzymes
How does resistance to Vancomycin occur?
With an amino acid change of D-ala D-ala to D-ala D-lac
How is Acyclovir used clinically?
HSV, VZV, EBV, Mucocutaneous and Genital Herpes Lesions, Prophylaxis in Immunocompromised pts
How is Amantadine used clinically?
Prophylaxis for Influenza A, Rubella ; Parkinson's disease
How is Amphotericin B administered for fungal meningitis?
Intrathecally
How is Amphotericin B used clinically?
Wide spectrum of systemic mycoses: Cryptococcus, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Aspergillus, Histoplasma, Candida, Mucor
How is Chloramphenical used clinically?
Meningitis (H. influenza, N. meningitidis, S. pneumoniae), Conserative treatment due to toxicities
How is Foscarnet used clinically?
CMV Retinitis in IC pts when Ganciclovir fails
How is Ganciclovir activated?
Phosphorylation by a Viral Kinase
How is Ganciclovir used clinically?
CMV, esp in Immunocompromised patients
How is Griseofulvin used clinically?
Oral treatment of superficial infections
How is Leishmaniasis treated?
Pentavalent Antimony
How is Ribavirin used clinically?
for RSV
How is Rifampin used clinically?
1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis 2. Delays resistance to Dapsone when used of Leprosy 3. Used in combination with other drugs
How is Trimethoprim used clinically?
Used in combination therapy with SMZ to sequentially block folate synthesis
How is Vancomycin used clinically?
For serious, Gram + multidrug-resistant organisms
How would you treat African Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)?
Suramin
In what population does Gray Baby Syndrome occur? Why?
Premature infants, because they lack UDP-glucuronyl transferase