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251 Cards in this Set

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Refers to the study of NATURAL DRUG SOURCES
Pharmacognosy
Chemical use to treat and diagnose or prevent disease
Drug
Study of drugs and their interactions with the human body
Pharacology
This name of the drug is proper and CAPITALIZED
Brand Name
Generic Name
Suggested by manufacturer and confirmed by US Adopted Name Council
Once dug has FDA official name it is listed where and will have what next to name of drug
Pharmocpeia, USP
Pharmacokinetics
How drug is absorbed, distributed and eliminated
Empowered FDA to enforce and set market safety standards for drugs
Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938
Durham-Humphrey Amendments of 1951
Required pharmacists to have a written or verbal prescription to dispense Med
Most recent major Federal Legislation affecting drug sales and use
Comprehensive Drug Abuse, Prevention, and Control Act (aka Contolled substance Act) of 1970
High abuse Potential; may lead to sever dependence; no accepted medical indications; used for researh and analysis and instruction only
Schedule I (LSD, Crystal Meth, HeroinO)
High potential for abuse; may lead to physical dependence; has accepted medical indications
Schedule II (opiods, cocaine, morphine, codiene, oxycodone, methadone)
Less potential for abuse; may lead to moderate or low dependence; high psychological dependence; accepted medical indications
Schedule III ( limited opoid amounts or combined with non controlled substances, T3, Vicodin
Low abuse rate; limited psychological and/or physical dependence; accepted medical indications
Schedule IV ( Diazepam, Phenobarb, Lorazepam)
Very Low abuse rate; may lead to limited physical or psycological dependence, accepted medical indications
Schedule V ( Limited opoids, often for cough or diarrhea, Robitussin with codiene)
Test that determines amount and purity of a given chemical in a preparation in a lab
Assay
Bioequivlence
Relative therapuetic effectiveness of chemically equivlent drugs
Bioassy
Test to ascertain a drugs availability in a biological model
Six rights of medication administration
Person, Time, Medication, Dose, Route, Documentation
Proportion of a drug available in the body to cause deired or undesired effects
Free Drug Availability
Pharmacodynamics
How a drug interacts with the body
Requires use of energy to transport
Active transport
Facilitated Diffusion
Carrier protiens transport large molecules across the cell memberane
Passive Diffusion
Doesn't require energy to transport
Diffusion
movement of solute in a solution form are of high to area of low concentration
Movement of solvent in solution from area of low to area of higher concentration
Osmosis
Filtration
Movement of molecules across a membrane from are of higher to area or lower pressure
To become electrically charge
Ionize
Pharmacokinetic Processes
Absorption, Distribution, Biotransformation, Elimination
Amount of drug that is still available after reaching target tissue
Bioavailability
Tight junctions of the capillary endothelial cells in CNS, which non-protein-bound highly lipid souable drugs can pass
Blood-Brain Carrier
Biochemical barrier that the maternal/fetal interface that restricts certain molecules
Placental Barrier
Known as the metabolism of Drugs
Biotransformation
Prodrug (parent Drug)
Medication that is not active when administered but whose biotransformation converts it into active metabolites
Hydrolysis
Breakage of a chemical bond by adding water
Oral
P.O. Throught the mouth. Drug must be able to tolerate the acidic gastric enviornment
Orogastric/nasogastric
OG/NG used as an oral route for medications when a tube is already in place
Sublingual
SL Excellent absorptionfrom sublingual cappilary bed without problems of gastric acidity
Absorption through cheek and gum
Buccal
PR
Rectal usually used for unconsciouss victims or those who can not tolerate PO or IV
Delivers medications by absorption through the GI tract
Enternal Routes
Parenteral Routes
delivery of medication outside the GI tract, usually injection into bloodstream
Preferred route of med administration in emergecies
IV- Intravenous
Endotrachel
ET- Alternative route for med admin in emergencies
IO
Intraosseous- Delivers drugs into the medullary space of the bones. Alternative to IV and ET
Umbilical
Umbilical artery and Vein can provide alternative to IV admin in newborns
Intramusular
IM- Allows slower absorption than IV
SC, SQ, SubQ
Subcutaneous- route is slower than IM
Very rapid absorption, is especially useful when adminiter drugs targeting the lungs
Inhalation/Nebulizer
Administer to top of skin
Topical
Delivering drugs to the mucousa, has expanding role in delivering systemically acting drugs
Nasal
Administration of drugs underneath the eyelid
Instillation
Adminiters drug to Dermal layers
Intradermal
Tinctures
Prepared using alcohol extract process
Preparations in which solids do not disolve in solvent, solid will precipate out
Suspension
Suspensions with oily substance in solvent
Emulsions
Most drugs act by binding to
Receptors
Drug that binds to a receptor and causes it to initiate the expected response
Agonist
Anatagonist
Drug that binds to receptor sites that do not initiate the expected response
Drug that binds to receptors and initiates part of response and blocks others
Agonist-antagonist
When one drug binds to receptor and causes expected effect while blocking another drug from triggering same receptor
Competitive antagongism
The binding of an antagonist causes a deformity of binding site that prevents an antagonist from fitting and binding
Noncompetitive antagonism
Irreversible antagonism
Competitive antagonism that permanantly binds with receptor site
Side effect
Unintended response
Aka additve effect. Two drugs that have the same effect are given together
Summation
Two drugs have same effect but when given increases the sum of the response
Synergism
Potentiation
One grug that enhance effect of another (i.e Phergan enahnce effects to morphine)
Onset action
Time that the drug is give until the minimum effect is aquired
Minimum effective level
Minimum level of drug needed to cause an effect
Biologic Half life
Time the body takes to clear one half of the drug
Drug that best demos the class's common properties and illustrates its particular characteristics
Prototype
Make up of CNS
Spinal chord, brain, all nerves that originate and terminate within brain or spinal column
Make up of peripheral Sys.
Everything else except brain and spinal column and nerves that start and end in brain and spinal column
Controls voluntary or motor functions
Somatic Nervous System
Controls of involuntary functions
Autonomic Nervous System
Analgesic, Anticonvulsants, Stimulants, anesthetics, psychotherapy drus are all meds for what system
CNS
Analgesic
Medication that relieves pain
Analgesia
Absence of pain
Anesthetic
Absence of ALL sensation
Adjunct medication
Enhance effects of other drugs (i.e benzoprines (diazepam (valium), lorazepam (ativan), midazolam (Versed)) antihistamines, and caffine
Three nonopioid medications that have analgesic properties
Salicylates (ASA), NSAIDS (Motrin), Para-aminophenol (Tylenol)
Prototype of opoid antagonist
Narcan (Naloxone)
Useful in reversing effects of Opoids
Opoid antagonist
Neuroleptanesthia
Combines decereased sensation of pain with amnesia while person remains conscious
Causes respiratory, CNS, and Cardiovascular depression
Anesthetics
State of decreased anxiety and inhibitions
Sedation
Hypnosis
intigation of sleep
Type of drug used to decrease anxiety, induce amnesia, and assit in sleep
Antianxiety and Sedative-hypnotic Drugs
Two main types of Antianxiety and sedative-hypnotic drugs
Benzodiazepines and Barbituates
A state of hyperactivity of either a section of the brain or all of the brain
Seizure
What is the function of barbituates and benzodiazepines in axiety and Sedative and Hypnotic drugs?
Hyperpolarizes the membrane of central nervous system neurons whichdecreases their response to the stimuli
Is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in central nervous system
Gama-aminobutyric Acid (GABA)
Where do partial seziures take place?
Erupt from a specific focus and described as alterations in consciousness or behavior
Describe generalized seizures?
Involves bith hemispheres of the brain and is described in terms of visible motor activity
This is a type of seizure that involves periods of muscle rigidity followed by spasmotic twitching
Generalized tonic-clonic
Life threatening condition, charaterized by uninterupted tonic-clonic seizures lasting more than 30 min
Sticus Epilepticus
What is the function if anti-seizure drugs?
to inhibit the influx of sodium into the cell decreasing the cells ability to depolarize and propergate seizures
In CNS Stimulants these are used to increase the relaxtion of the of exitatory neurotransmitters
Amphetamines
This is a type of CNS Stimulant that blocks adenosine receptors
Methylxanthines
Drug used to treat mental DYSFUNCTION
Psychotherapeutic Medication
Antipsycotic drugs are also known as
Neuroleptic
Tricycli Antideressants (TCA)
Antidepressants act by blocking the reuptake of norepi and seretonin, extending the duration of their actions
Most wideley prescribed SSRI in US
Prozac (fluoxetine)
SSRI stands for
Selective Seretonin Reuptake Inhibitors
SSRI's do not effect which drug
Dopamine or Norepinephrine
Groups of autonomic nerve cells located outside the CNS
Autonomic Ganglia
Chemical messenger that conducts a nervous impulse across a synapse
Neurotransmitter
Cholergenic
Pertaining to the neurotransmitter ACh
Adrenergic
Pertaining to the neurotransmitter norepinephrine
What 4 cranial nerves does the parasympathetic system travel through when leaving the brain
Ocularmotor nerves (III), Facial Nerves (VII), glosso-phyrangeal (IX), Vagus nerve (X)
What nerves does the parasympathetic nerves form in the sacral segment
Pelvic nerves (bladder, sex organs, and terminal portions of the large intestine
Stimulation of parasympathetic Nervous System results in:
Pupillary Constriction, secretions by digestive glands, reduction in HR, Bronchoconstriction, increased smooth muscle activity in digestive tract
Parasypathomimetic (Cholergenic)
Drugs or substances that cause effects like those of the PNS
Parasypatholytic (Anticholergenic)
drugs or substance that blocks or inhibits actions of PNS
Direct acting cholergenics
stimulate affects of ACh by directly binding with cholergenic receptors
SLUDGE Stands for
Salvation, Lacrimation, Urination, Defecation, Gastric motility, Emisis
SLUDGE is the acronym for side effects of what type of drugs?
Cholergenics
Indirect-acting cholergenics affect
AChE
Drug used to treat MYASTHENIA GRAVIS
Neostigmine (Prostigmin)
How does Neostigmine work
Blocks the degradation of ACh and help increase muscle stregnth
What is the sole purpose if Irriverible cholinestrase inhibitors
Treatment of glucoma
Sympathomimetric (ADRENGERIC)
Drug or substance that causes effects loke those of sympathetic nevous system
Sympatholytic (ANTIADRENGERIC)
Drug that clocks action of the sympathetic nervous system
Alpha 1 antagonism is fot tx of
Hypertension
How does Alpha 1 antagonist work
Prevents peripheral vasoconstriction of alpha stimulation, therefore decreases the B/P
Beta 1 primarily used for
Cardia Arrest and Hypotension
Function of Beta 1 agonist
Increases HR, contractility and conduction
Beta 1 antagonist are primarily used for
Control of BP
Primary function of Beta 1 ANTAGONIST
Block effects of Beta 1 by decrease HR, contactility, and conduction.
Beta 2 agonist used to treat ?
Asthama and other conditions with excessive narrowing of the bronchioles
Function of Beta 2 Agonist
Relaxes bronchiole smooth muscles causing bronchodialation, also have uriterine smooth muscle relation
Drugs used to treat and prevent abnormal cardiac rhythms
Antidysrythmic Drugs
Antidysrythmics are classified in Vaughn-Williams and Singh Classification System What are the Class:
I- Sodium Channel Blockers II- Beta Blockers
III- Potassium Blockers IV- Misc.
Class IA drugs include
Procanamide Quinidine and Norpace
Class IA function is
Slowing Conduction, decrease repolarization rate
Class IB drugs include
Lidocaine, Phyentoin (Dilantin), Tocainide, Mexiletine
Function of Class IB
Increase repolariztion where as IA DECREASES repolarization
Class IC drug include
Flecainide (Tambocor), Propafenone (Rhytmol)
Function of Class IC
Decreases Conduction velocity through atria nad ventricles as well as Bundle of His and Perkinjie network
Drugs of Class II (Beta Blockers)
Propanalol (Inderal), Acebutolol (Sectral), Esmolol (Brevibloc)
Function of Class II (Beta Blockers)
treatment of tachycardiads, Beta 1 is attached to Calcium beta blockes block beta 1 and slow things down
Drugs of Class III (Potassium Channel Blockers)
Bretylium (Breytlol) and AMIODERONE (Cordarone)
Function of Potassium Channel Blockers
Blocks potassium and slows down repolarization and refractory period
Drugs of Class IV (Calcium Channel Blockers)
Verampamil (CALAN), and Diltiazem (Cardiziem)
Function of Calcium channel blockers
Affect the heart, decrease SA and AV node automaticity, mainly decreases conductivity
Class V (MISC.)drugs include
Adenosine, Digoxin, Magnesium
Function of Diuretics
Reduce circulating blood volume by increasing amout of urine output. Reduces PRELOAD of the heart
Calcium Channel blocker that does not affect the Heart
Procardia. It acts on vascular smooth muscles or the aterioles
Fibrolytics function
act directly on thrombi to break them up
These are mediators released from mast cells upon contact with allergens
Leukotrines
These types of drugs stimulate the effects of ACh by directly binding with colinergic receptors
Cholerinergics
Cholinergics anatagonists that block the effects of ACh almost exclusivley at muscarinic receptors
Muscarinic Cholinergic Antagonist
These block the ACh only at nicotinic receptors
Nicotinic ANatagonist
Is produced by competitive antagonism with ACh at nicotinic receptors in autonomic ganglia
Ganglionis Blocking Agents
Produces a state of paraylysis without affecting consciousness
Neuromuscular Blocking agents
These receptors cause peripheral vasoconstriction, mild bronchoconstriction, and stimulation of metabolism
Alpha 1 adrenergic receptors
These receptors sereve to prevent over release of norepinephrine in synapse
Alpha 2 adrengeric receptors
Theses receptors cause increase in heart rate, cardiac contractile force, and cardiac automaticity and conduction
Beta 1 adrenergic receptors
These receptors causes vasodialation and brochodialation
Beta 2 adrenergic receptors
These receptors evidently cause dialation of renal ,coronary, and cerebral arteries
Dopaminergic Receptors
Medications that stimulate the sympathetic Nervous System
Sympathomimetics
Medications that inhibit the sympathetic nervous system
Sympathilytics
Primary purpose for medications to stimulate the Alpha 1 receptors is ?
Peripheral vasoconstriction
Alpha 1 antagonism is indicated for
Contolling Hypertension
Beta 1 stimulation is indicated for
Cardia arrest and hypotension resulting from inadequate pumping
Most common use of Beta 1 antagonist
Controll B/P
Beside controlling b/p, what are beta 1 antagonist used to treat in emergency settings
SVT's anginas and also reduces recurrence od MI
Beta 2 agonists ore used to treat
Astham and any other conditions resulting from narrowing of bronchioles
Beta 2 agonist work by
relaxing bronichial smooth muscle and causing bronchodialation
The adrenergic Agent catecholamines include what chemicals or drugs
Norepinephrine, epinepherine, and dopamine
Synthetic catecholamines include
Isoproternol and dobutamine
Beta adrenergic anatagonists are referred to as
Beta Blockers
These are used to treat muscle spasms from injusry and muscle spasticity from CNS injuries or diseases
Skeletal Muscle relaxants
Calcium is responsible for what action in the heart
Muscle COntraction
Drugs used to treat and prevent abnormat cardiac rhythms
Antidysrhythmics
These frugs slow the progagation of impulses down the specialized conductive system of atria and ventricles
Sodium Channel Blockers
Class Ia Sodum Chanel Blockers include:
Quinidine, Procanamide, Disopyrimide
Class Ib Sodium Channel blockers include:
Lidocaine, Phenytoin, Tocanide, Mexiletine
Class Ic Sodium Channel Blockers include:
Tambocor, Rhythmol
Function of Class Ia Sodium Channel Blockers
Slow Conduction and decrease repolarization rate
Function of Class Ib Sodium Channel Blockers include
Increasing repolarization rate and reduce automicity in ventricular cells
Function of Class Ic Sodium Channel Blockers include:
delay repolarization
Class II Antidysrythmics are
Beta Blockers
Class III antidysrythmics are
Potassium Channel Blockers
Potassium Channel Blockers are also called what type of medications
Antiadrergic Medications
Function of Potassium Channel Blockers
Prolong repolarization and effective refractory period
Class IV antidysrthmics are
Calcium Channel Blockers/ MISC.
These decrease the SA and AV nodes automaticity, but most of their usefulness arises from decreasing conductivity throught the AV node
Calcium Channel Blockers
Is the force of blood against the arteries walls as heart contracts and relaxes
Blood Pressure
These types of drug reduce the circulating blood volume by increasing amout of urine
Diuertics
Loop Diuretics are primary tool for treating what
CHF
Most of the beta blockers are located where?
Heart and juxtaglomerular cells of Kidneys
Function of Centrally Acting Adrenergic Inhibitors
reduce hypertension by inhibiting the CNS stimulation of adrnergic receptors
Centrally Acting Adrenergic Inhibitors are known as
Alpha 2 agonists
Alpha 2 agonists are located where?
The presynaptic end terminals
What is it the alpha 2 recpeptors release when stimulated
Norepinephrine to counter balance sypathetic stimulation
HEMOstasis
The stoppage of bleeding
Antiplatelet drugs are used for
decreasing the formation of platelet plugs
The primary antiplatelet drug used is
Aspirin
TXA2 is
Thromboxane A2
TXA2 causes
platlets to aggregate and promoted local vasoconstriction
Aspirins main side effects is
Bleeding
Drung that interrupts the clooting cascade
Anticoagulant drug
Drug that acts directly through the thrombi to break them down
Thrombolitic/Fibrinolytics
Prototype for Fibrinolytics is
Streptase
Common fibrinolytic is
tPA
Elevated LDL's have been clearly indicated as a causative factor in
CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE
This contains most of the cholesterol in the blood abd are required to transport cholesterol from liver to the peripheral tissue
LDL
These carry cholesterol from the peripheral tissuesto the liver, where it is broken down
HDL
Antihistamines
drugs that arrest histamines by blocking its receptors
Histamines
an endogenous substance that affects a wide variety of organs
Antitussive
Medication that supresses cough
Expectorant
Medication intended to increase producticvity of cough
Mucolytic
Medication intended to make musous watery
Chief side effect of antihistaines
Sedation
Antihistamines should not be used in patients with?
Astham due to the effevt of increased secretions
An imbalance between factors in the gastrointestinal system that increases acidity and those that protect against acidity
Peptic ulcer disease
MOst common cause of Peptic Ulcer Disease
H. Pylori
these act directly on the Potassium and hysrogen ATPase enzyme that secretes gastric acid
Proton Pump Inhibitors
Alkalotic compund used to increase gastric enviornment's pH
Antacid
Medication used to decrease stool firmenss and increase water content
Laxative
4 catergories of laxatives
Bulk Forming, surfactant, stimulant, and osmotic
Citrucel, metamucil are what type of laxative
Bulk Forming
Laxative that absorb waters, leading to a softer stool
Bulk forming
Substance that decreases surface tension and increases water absorption into feces
Surfactant
Bisacodyl, Colace (doucasate Sodium) is what type of laxative
Surfactant
Poorly absorbed salts that increase osmotic pull, there by increasing water content
osmotic laxatives
Medication used to prevent vomiting
Antiemetics
Transmitters involved in vomiting reflex include:
Serotonin, sopamin, ACh, Histamine
Effects of serotonin antagonist in vomiting
Blocks saratonin inhibitors in CTZ, the stomach, and sm. intestine
What medication is considered a serotonin antagonist for vominting
Zofran
Medication for dopamine antagonists for vominitng include
Promethazine (phenergan) Compazine, Haldol, reglan
Degenerative disease that effects the optic nerve
Glaucoma
Most common types of medications used to treat glaucoma is
Beta blockers and cholineregics
Beta blockers are used for the eyes to :
reduce IOP (intraoccular pressure)
Cholineregic medication for the eyes do what?
stimulate muscurinic receptors and cause MIOSIS (pupil constriction)and ciliary muscle contraction
Dwarfism, abnormal growth, giantism are all conditions of
Anterior Pituitary
Sometrem and Somatropin are use to treat?
Dwarfism and is a growth hormone
Sandostatin is used for?
Giantism
Acromegaly and Giantism are normally cause by?
Tumor
2 Posterior pituitary hormones are
Oxytocinand antidiuretic
This hormone increases water reabsorption in the renal collecting tubules
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Physiologically, this is the key component in regulating blood volume, bloo pressure and electrolyte balance
ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
Drug s used for ADH deficiency are
Vasopressin, desmopressin, lysepressin
Substance that decreases blood glucose level
Insulin
Substance that increases blood glucose level
Glucagon
Drugs that affect the male reproductive system
Testosterone, Metandren, Halotestin
Benign prstatic Hyperplasia is known as
Enlarged Prostate
Treatment of enlarged prostate is
Primary, surgery secondary is Proscar interferes with enzyme in prostate growth
How many types of Beta adrenergic receptors are there and where are they located
B1- Heart and kidneys, B2- Lungs, GI, Liver, vascualr smooth muscles,uterus, and skeletal muscle B3- Fat Cells
What is ACh and its function?
Acetecholine, which is a chemical that allows neurons to communicate with each other