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83 Cards in this Set

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bacteria that are susceptible to the antibacterial actions of a particular drug.
antibacterial spectrum
antibacterial drug obtained from other microorganisms.
antibiotic
identification of the antibiotics, by bacterial culture and sensitivity testing, that will be effective against specific bacteria.
antibiotic susceptibility
antibacterial drugs obtained by chemical synthesis and not from other microorganisms.
antimicrobial
single-celled microorganisms, some of which cause disease.
bacteria
ability of som bacteria to resist the actions of antibiotics.
bacterial resistance
antibiotic that kills bacteria.
bactericidal
antibiotic that inhibits the growth of, but does not kill, bacteria.
bacteriostatic
bacterial enzymes that inactivate penicillin and cephalosporin antibiotics.
beta-lactamases
drug that is effective against a wide variety of both gram-positive and gram-negative pathogenic bacteria.
broad-spectrum
bacterial enzymes that inactivate cephalosporin antibiotics.
cephalosporinases
use of antibiotics to prevent infection, usually before a surgical procedure or in patients at risk for infection.
chemoprophylaxis
use of drugs to kill or inhibit the growth of infectious organisms or cancer cells.
chemotherapy
bacteria that retain only the red stain in a gram stain.
gram negative
bacterai that retain only the blue stain in a gram stain.
gram positive
method of staining and identifying bacteria using crystal violet (blue) and safranin (red) stains.
gram stain
type of bacteria that cause disease.
pathogenic
bacterial enzymes that inactivate penicillin antibiotics.
penicillnase
protection from viral reinfection in the form of antibodies.
acquired immunity
viral-induced disease characterized by multiple opportunistic infections as a result of depleted lymphocytes involved in the cell-mediated immune process.
AIDS - acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
the ability of viruses to change the composition or structure of their surface proteins (viral coat) that are responsible for producing disease (pathogenicity).
antigenic drift and antigenic shift
infection caused by the yeast Candida; also known as moniliasis.
candidiasis
infection of the skin, hair, or nails caused by a fungus.
dermatophytic
substance, chemical solution, or drug that kills fungi.
fungicidal
human immunodeficiency virus, responsible for producing AIDS.
HIV
condition that causes individuals to resist acquiring or developing a disease or infection.
immunity
having inhibition of the body's immune response (ability to fight infection), usually induced by drugs or viruses.
immunosuppressed
composed of a protein substance largely dound in hair and nails.
keratinized
any disease caused by a fungus.
mycosis
molecule that contains purine or pyrimidine bases in combination with sugar.
nucleoside
microorganism capable of causing disease only when the resistance (immunocompetence) of the host is impaired.
opportunistic organism
disease associaated with excessive liver production of delta-aminolevulonic acid and characterized by intermittent hypertension, abdominal cramps, and psychosis.
porphyria (acute)
a potentially fatal illness characterized by vomiting, and enlarged liver, convulsions, and coma, in children and adolescents; linked to the use of salicylates in the management of influenza, usually type B or chickenpox.
Reye's syndrome
term used for Candida infection in the mucous membranes of the mouth and pharynex
thrush
condition in which there is no outward evidence (symptom) that an infection is present.
asymptomatic
pattern of characteristic symptoms (central nervous system [cns] stimulation and headache) associated with the use of cinchona alkaloids (chemicals extracted fromthe bark of the cinchona tree).
cinchonism
reaction to alcohol ingestion characterized by intense nausea as a result of drug-induced accumulation of acetaldehyde, such as that produced by disulfiram.
disulfiram reation
condition characterized by frequent watery stools (usually containing blood and mucus), tenesmus, fever, and dehydration.
dysentery
ion in solution, such as sodium, potassium, or chloride, that is capable of mediating conduction (passing impulses in the tissue).
electrolyte
present continually in a particular geographic region, often in spite of control measures.
endemic
organism in an immature staage of development
gametocyte
protozoal infection characterized by attacks of chills, fever, and sweating.
malaria
procedure or medication to prevent a disease, rather than to treat an existing disease
prophylaxis
single-celled organism belonging to the genus protozoa.
protozoan
arresting of malaria, in which protozoal parasites are eliminated from all tissues.
radical cure
a painful spasm of the anal sphincter, causing an urgent desire to defecate although little of no material is passed
tenesmus
infection caused by the Trichomonas organism; a sexually transmitted disease.
trichomoniasis
substance that inhibits the growth of microorganisms without totally distroying them; refers to substance used on living tissue.
aniseptic
permanent black discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes caused by prolonged use of silver protein solutions.
argyria
suffix denoting killing, as of microorganisms.
-cidal
bedsore.
decubitis ulcer
causing destruction of bacterial protein function; also adulteration of alcohol, rendering it unfit for drinking.
denaturing
substance that inhibits the growth of disease-causing microorganisms; refers to substances used on nonliving surfaces.
disinfectant
thick crust of scab that develops after skin is burned.
eschar
exaggerated response, such as rash, edema, or anaphylaxis, that developes following exposure to certain drugs or chemicals.
hypersensitivity
compund containing iodine.
iodophor
washing (lavage) of a wound or cavity with large volumes of fluid.
irrigation
to disintegrate or dissolve
lyse
infection acquired as a resuld of being in a hospital.
nosocomial
suffix denoting the inhibition of, as of microoranisms.
-static
process that results in destruction of all mmicroorganisms.
sterilization
irreversible chemical bond that some drugs form with nucleic acids and DNA.
alkylation
drug whose chemical structure is similar to that of normal body metabloites and taht inhibits normal cell function.
antimetabolite
drug that inhibits tumor growth or cell reproduction; used to treat cancer
antineoplastic
disease that involves the developement and reproduction of abnormal cells.
cancer
use of drugs to inhibit the growth of or distroy infectious organisms or cancer cells.
chemotherapy
lack of responsiveness of cancer cells to chemotherapy.
drug resistance
life-threatening; refers to growth of a tumor that causes the normal cell population to decrease.
malignant
spread of cancer cells throughout the body, from primary to seconday sites
metastasis
suppression of bone marrow activity that interferes with the production of all blood cells; causes anemia, incresed infections, and bleeding problems.
myelosupression
period when cancer cells are not increasing in number
remission
causing birth defects of fetal abnormalities.
teratogenic
group of new cells having no useful function and exhibiting abnormal, uncontrolled growth; also called a neoplasm.
tumor
protein that attacks and helps destroy infectious organisms.
antibody
causing cancer.
carcinogenic
study of drugs with immunosuppressive and immunostimulant effects.
immunopharmacology
ability to stimulate and increase immune function.
immunostimulation
ability to reduce the activity of immune function.
immunosuppression
chemical mediatior produced by immune cells that increases immune function.
interferon
chemical mediatior produced by immune cells that help regulate and increase immune function.
interleukin
decrease in the number of circulating lymphocytes.
lymphopenia
having the ability to cause mutations.
mutagenic
capable of causing abnormal development.
teratogenic