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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
pharmacology
interaction btwn living system and chemicals
drug
biologically active cmpd taken with intent of producing change in body
receptor
molecule in bio system with regulatory role
mechanism of action
theories of drug action
pharmokinetics
body on drugs (absorbs, distribute...)
pharmodynamics
drug on body
clinical pharmacokinetics
phys/math details (dosage, etc)
Adverse drug rxn
undesirable effect
clinical pharmacology
bridge btwn science+pharmacology+clinical medicine
toxicology
science of unwanted side effects of chemicals on body
Generic Name
non-proprietary
Trade Name
proprietary
generic:acetaminophen
trade:tylenol
generic:aspirin
trade:bayer
generic:naproxen sodium
trade:aleve
drug prototype
standard for drug class (more known, better illustrates entire class)
NSAID: Aspirin
Side effect
non-deleterious undersirable effect
Toxic effect
deleterious undesirable effect
Tissue Toxicity
parent drug and/or metabolite
3 types: pharmacological (reversible), pathological, genotoxic (reversible)
Allergic Rxn/hypersensitivity
result of previous exposure
TYPE I allergic rxn
immediate
anaphylactic (body secretes stuff)
IgE mediated
TYPE II allergic rxn
cytotoxic/cytolytic
IgG & IgM mediated
ex.penicillin- hemolytic anemia
TYPE III allergic rxn
immune complex, arthus rxn
IgG mediated
ex.sulfonamides
TYPES IV allergic rxn
delayed/cell mediated
t-cell lymphocytes/macrophage mediated
ex.poison ivy
Idiosyncrasy
can't predict: 1.hyperreactivity
2.unusual response to normal dose
3.genetic predisposition
Tolerance
no response/therapeutic effect
Acute, Chronic
Acute Tolerance
after few doses, tachyphylaxis
Chronic Tolerance
Req more dosage over time
Tolerance mechanisms
1.activate indpt counter-reg
2.attenuate receptor fxn
3.increase intracellular drug clearance
4. increase drug metabolism
mutagenesis
alters/mutates DNA
can cause cancer
carcinogenesis
ability to cause cancer
Teratogenesis
risk to fetus in pregnancy
Category A
no risk to fetus
Category B
no risk in human
most US drugs
Category C
Risk, but benefits may outweigh
Category D
Evidence of human fetal risk, benefits outweigh?
Category X
CONTRAINDICATED, risk outweighs benefit
Interaction with drug absorption
tetracyclines+milk: absorption down
antacids+captopril:captopril absorption down
(chelation)
Interaction with receptor binding
atropine +Ach:Ach decreased (blocked)
antincoagulant+leafy green:anticoagulant decreased(competitive)
Interaction with drug metabolism
phenobarbital+digitalis:digitalis metabolism increased
erythromycin+midazolam:mid met decreased
grapefruit juice
Interaction with drug excretion
high dose aspirin+uric acid:uric acid excretion up
low dose aspirin+uric acid:uric acid excretion down
probenecid+penecillin:penecillin excretion down
IND
Notice of claimed investigational exemption for new drug
Phase I
healthy pts, establishes dose-effect
Phase II
diseased pts (placebo+positive control)
Phase III
repeated with more subjects
NDA
New Drug application
Phase IV
Monitor drug after approval
Orphan drug
to treat rare disease with targe population <200,000 pts