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90 Cards in this Set

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Hypolipidemic Drugs, Bile Acid Binding Resins (2)
Colestipol (Colestid)
Cholestyramine (Questran)
Hypolipidemic Drugs, HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (6)
Lovastatin (Mevacor)
Simvastatin (Zocor)
Fluvastatin (Lescol)
Pravastatin (Pravachol)
Atorvastatin (Lipitor)
Rosuvastatin (Crestor)
Hypolipidemic Drugs, Cholesterol absorption inhibitors (2)
Ezetimibe (Zetia)
Vytorin
Hypolipidemic Drugs, Agents that lower triglyceride (2)
Niacin (Nicotinic Acid)
Fenofibrate
Combo used to treat chylomicronemia and familial hypertriglyceridemia
Niacin and fibrate
Combo used to treat familial combined hyperlipoproteinemia
Niacin and resin or statin
Combo used to treat heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia
Niacin, statin, and resin
Combo used to treat homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia
Niacin and atorvastatin
Combo used to treat Lp(a) hyperlipoproteinemia
Niacin and neomycin
Antiplatelet, Anticoagulant, and Thrombolytic Drugs, Oral Antiplatelet Drugs (6)
Aspirin (acetelysalicylic acid, ASA)
Clopidogrel (Plavix)
Ticlopidine (Ticlid)
Dipyridamole (Persantine)
Aggrenox
Fish oils
Antiplatelet, Anticoagulant, and Thrombolytic Drugs, Parenteral Antiplatelet Drugs (3)
Abciximab
Eptifibatide
Tirofiban
Antiplatelet, Anticoagulant, and Thrombolytic Drugs
Parenteral Anticoagulants (4)
Heparin
Heparin sulfate
LMWH (Enoxaparin, Dalteparin, Tinzaparin)
Protamine sulfate (Heparine Antidote)
Antiplatelet, Anticoagulant, and Thrombolytic Drugs
Oral Anticoagulant
Warfarin (Coumadin)
Antiplatelet, Anticoagulant, and Thrombolytic Drugs
Parenteral Thrombolytic Drugs (4)
Urokinase (Abbokinase)
Streptokinase (Streptase)
Anistreplase (Eminase)
t-PA (Alteplase, Reteplase, Tenecteplase)
Antiplatelet, Anticoagulant, and Thrombolytic Drugs
Parenteral Anticoagulants
Alternatives to heparins (4)
Fondaparinux
Lepirudin
Argatroban
Bivalirudin
Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System
ACE Inhibitors (2)
Prevent formation of angiotensin II and degradation of bradykinin
5-20% incidence of cough
Tendency for hyperkalemia
Precipitation of acute renal failure is used in HTN secondary to renal artery stenosis
Useful for HTN in diabetics
Captopril (Capoten)
Enalapril (Vasotec)
Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System
ARBs(3)
AT1 receptor antagonist
No potentiation of bradykinin system
Helpful in CHF, DM, and renal disease
Losartan (Cozaar)
Irbesartan (Avapro)
Valsartan (Diovan)
Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System
Aldosterone receptor antagonists (2)
K+ sparing diuretics
Spironolactone
Eplerenone (Inspra)
Vasodilators
Drugs acting through the autonomic nervous system
Agents that block reuptake (2)
Guanadrel (Hylorel)
Reserpine
Vasodilators
Drugs acting through the autonomic nervous system
α2a agonists (3)
Effects result in a reduction in sympathetic outflow from the CNS
Clonidine (Catapres)
Guanabenz (Wytensin)
Guanfacine (Tenex)
Vasodilators
Direct vasodilator drugs (3)
Hydralazine (Apresoline)
Minoxidil (Loniten)
Sodium nitroprusside
Vasodilators
Calcium Channel Blockers
Inhibit Ca2+ influx through the L-type channel
Dihydropyridines (3)
Nifedipine (Procardia)
Nifedipine (Adalat)
Nimodipine
Vasodilators
Calcium Channel Blockers
Inhibit Ca2+ influx through the L-type channel
non-Dihydropyridines (2)
Verapamil
Diltiazem (Cardizem)
Vasodilators
Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors
PD E5 inhibitor
Sildenafil
Diuretic Drugs
Proximal Tubule (2)
Acetazolamide (Diamox)
Mannitol
Diuretic Drugs
Loop of Henle (3)
Inhibit active chloride transport in the thick ascending limb
For patients with impaired renal function, refractory edema, acute pulmonary edema, or hypertensive crises
Furosemide (Lasix)
Bumetanide (Bumex)
Ethacrynic acid (Edecrin)
Diuretic Drugs
Distal Tubule
Thiazides (5)
Effective at both extremes of acid-base balance
Compete for the chloride site on the Na+-Cl- co-transporter, also increases the reabsorption of calcium
Can cross placenta
First agents used in essential hypertension; low doses control hypertension without potassium loss, insulin resistance, or lipid elevation
Can cause hypokalemia and impotence
Chlorothiazide (Diuril)
Polythiazide (Renese)
Methyclothiazide (Enduron)
Hydrochlorothiazide (Hydrodiuril)
Bendroflumethiazide (Naturetin)
Diuretic Drugs
Distal Tubule
Non-Thiazides (4)
Non-benzothia-diazines, but with diuretic properties similar to thiazides
Chlorthalidone
Quinethazone
Indapamide
Metolazone
Diuretic Drugs
Collecting Ducts
Potassium-sparing, inhibit sodium reabsorption and decrease potassium excretion (2)
Amiloride
Triamterene
Diuretic Drugs
Collecting Ducts
Potassium sparing, aldosterone antagonist
Spironolactone
Anti-Anginal Drugs
Organic nitrates (target NO) (3)
Capable of denitration to release NO
Relax veins at low doses and large arteries at high doses
Stable, variant and unstable angina
Avoid PDE5 inhibitors
Nitroglycerin (Nitrol, Nitrostat)
Isosorbide dinitrate (Isordil)
-Chewable
Isosorbide -5-mononitrate (Imdur)
Anti-Anginal Drugs
Ca2+ channel antagonists
Act on both vascular smooth muscle and the myocardium
Predominantly arteriolar dilators
For variant angina, stable and unstable angina, and MI
Dihydropyridines (2)
Nifedipine (Adalat)
Nimodipine
Anti-Anginal Drugs
Ca2+ channel antagonists
Act on both vascular smooth muscle and the myocardium
Predominantly arteriolar dilators
For variant angina, stable and unstable angina, and MI
non-Dihydropyridines (2)
Verapamil
(Calan, Isootin, Verelan)
Diltiazem (Cardizem)
Anti-Anginal Drugs
β-blockers
Reduce heart rate, contractility, and arterial blood pressure
For exertional angina, hypertension, arrhythmias
Cardioprotective post-MI
β1-selective (1)
Atenolol (Tenormin)
Anti-Anginal
Fatty acid oxidase inhibitor that increases the amount of ATP produced from glucose
Ranolazine
Positive Inotropic Drugs (3)
Digitalis
Sympathomimetic Amines
Phosphodiesterase inhibitors
Positive Inotropic Drugs
Phosphodiesterase inhibitors (2)
Inamrinone (Inocor)
Milrinone (Primacor)
Arrhythmias
Class I- Fast Na+ channel blockers
Class IA
Procainamide
Arrhythmias
Class I- Fast Na+ channel blockers
ClassIB
Lidocaine
Arrhythmias
Class III- K+ channel blockers
Prolong repolarization (2)
Amiodarone
Sotalol
Arrhythmias
Class IV Ca2+ channel blockers
Verapamil
Arrhythmias
Other antiarrhythmic drugs (3)
Adenosine
Digoxin
K+ Ion
Arrhythmias
First choice for atrial fibrillation with atrioventricular conduction via accessory pathway (2)
DC cardioversion
iv procainamide
Arrhythmias
First choice for ventricular tachycardia with remote myocardial infarction
Lidocaine
Arrhythmias
First choice for ventricular premature beats
Amiodarone
Arrhythmias
First choice for Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (2)
Adenosine
Verapamil
Arrhythmias
First choice for Atrial fibrillation in patients with heart failure
Digoxin
Pituitary hormones
Fully active GHRH receptor agonist that can be used to treat hypopituitary dwarfism resulting from a GHRH deficiency
Sermorelin
Pituitary hormones
Dopamine agonist
Exerts a paradoxical inhibitory effect on GH release in approximately 50% of patients with acromegaly
Bromocriptine
Pituitary hormones
Longer acting D2 dopamine receptor agonist
Found to be effective in reducing GH levels and treating hyperprolactinemia
Cabergoline
Pituitary hormones
Synthetic analog of Somatostatin (SST), longer half life than SST
Can inhibit GH release in acromegaly
Effective in treating pancreatic cholera
Octreotide (Sandostatin)
Pituitary hormones
Inhibits adenylyl cyclase through Gi
Stops GH release
Somatostatin (SST)
Hypothyroidism
Desiccated thyroid
Inexpensive, but potency of each preparation varies
Thyroid USP
Hypothyroidism
Prolonged, potency of each preparation varies
Thyroglobulin
Hypothyroidism
Drug of choice for treatment of myxedema
Sodium levothyroxine (Synthroid)
Hypothyroidism

T3, short-acting with rapid onset
Sodium liothyronine (Cytomel)
Hypothyroidism
4:1 mixture of T4:T3
Overpriced
Liotrix Euthyroid
Hyperthyroidism
Inhibitors of thyroxine biosynthesis
Thionamides (2)
Inhibitors of thyroid peroxidase
Use extreme caution in treating pregnant women. Use in minimal doses since these drugs cross the placenta
Methimazole (Tapazole)
Propylthiouracil (Propacil)
Hyperparathyroidism
High levels of iodine that interfere with thyroid gland function
Interferes with thyroid gland function; combination of KI and I2
Lugol's solution
Hyperparathyroidism
Drug of choice for destroying toxic adenoma. Never use to treat pregnant women
131I
Calcium regulation
Activates osteoclasts and stimulates Ca2+ transport from bone to extracellular fluids
Increases the synthesis of calcitriol at the level of the kidney
Increases renal tubular resorption of Ca2+
Stimulates adenylyl cyclase in target tissues
Stimulates 1α-hydroxylase to convert 25(OH)D3 to 1,25(OH)2D3
PTH
Calcium regulation
Increases the synthesis of Ca2+ binding transport protein in the mucosal cells of the gut
Increases Ca2+ transport from bone to extracellular fluids
Diffuses into target cells in intestine, bone, and kidney; binds to specific cytosolic receptors and induces production of proteins required for Ca2+ transport
Calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D3)
Calcium regulation
Decreases plasma Ca2+ by inhibiting activity of osteoclasts and decreasing tubular resorption of Ca2+
Calcitonin
Calcium regulation
Derived from yeasts and fungi
Can also be hydroxylated in the 1 and 25 positions
Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2)
Calcium regulation
Can be used to supplement or replace calcitriol; derived from yeasts and fungi
1,25(OH)2D2
Paget's disease treatments (4)
Characterized by overactive osteoclast activity in bone
Bisphosphonates
Slow the rate of demineralization of crystals of hydroxyapatite
Sodium etidronate
Alendronate
Risedronate
Ibandronate
Postmenopausal osteoporosis treatments (4)
Alendronate
Risedronate
Ibandronate
Teriparatide
Vitamin D intoxication
Characterized by hypercalcemia leading to Ca2+ deposition in soft tissues (like kidney)
Glucocorticoid
Can block intestinal absorption of Ca2+
Prednisone
Adrenal Steroids
Antagonists of Adrenal Steroids (3)
Mifepristone (RU 486)
Spironolactone
Eplerenone
Adrenal Steroids
Inhibitors of adrenal steroid biosynthesis (4)
Dexamethasone
Methyrapone
Aminoglutethimide
Ketoconazole
Type I diabetes treatments (6)
Lispro insulin (Humalog)
NPH insulin (Isophane)
Insulin zinc extended
Insulin glargine
Inhaled insulin (Exubera)
Captopril
Type II diabetes treatments
Sulfonylureas (3)
Inhibit K+ efflux, causing depolarization, the entry of Ca2+, and the release of insulin
Tolbutamide
Glipizide
Glyburide
Type II diabetes treatments
Non-sulfonylureas (6)
Metformin
Acarbose
Pioglitazone
Rosiglitazone
Repaglinide
Sitagliptin phosphate
Male hypogonadism
Main clinical use of androgen administration
Testosterone enanthate
Andropause treatments (2)
Testosterone serum concentration decrease by 1-2% per year after age 30
Supplement therapy can increase muscle strength, libido, and sense of well-being
Testoderm patch
Androderm patch
Hereditary Angioedema treatments (2)
Impaired C1-esterase inhibitor
Overactive complement cascade increases blood vessel permeability
Danazol
Stanozolol
Anti-androgens (5)
Flutamide
Bicalutamide
Cyproterone Acetate
Finasteride
Dutasteride
Pharmacological preparations of estrogens (2)
17α ethinyl estradiol
Equilin
Estrogen replacement therapies (2)
Ethinyl estradiol
Norethindrone acetate
Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs)(2)
Beneficial action in some tissues
Bone, brain, liver
Antagonistic activity in some tissues
Breast, endometrium
Act by differential recruitment of co-repressors or co-activators to estrogen receptors
Tamoxifen
Raloxifene
Estrogen Synthesis Inhibitor
Letrozole
Fertility control
IUD
Provides protection for 5 years
Prevents fertilization via sterile inflammation and sperm destruction
Relative risk of PID during the first month is 3.8
Levonorgestrel
Fertility control
Six rods with 36mg levonorgestrel
Five years protection, suppresses ovulation, thickens cervical mucous, thins endometrial lining
Norplant
Fertility control
150 mg injection every 3 months
Inhibits ovulation, thickens cervical mucous, thins endometrial lining
Depo-Provera
Fertility control
Emergency contraception
One pill containing .75mg levonorgestrel
Plan B
Fertility control
Emergency contraception
Two pills containing .25mg levonorgestrel and 50mics ethinyl estradiol
Preven
Fertility control
Emergency contraception
35mics ethinyl estradiol, 0.3mg Norgestrel
LoOvral
Fertility control
Selective estrogen receptor modulator
Decreases estrogen feedback tone on GnRH release
Favors FSH release over LH
Used for infertility
Clomiphene Citrate
Fertility control
Isolated from the urine of menopausal women
Integral to assisted reproductive technologies such as IVF
Exogenous gonadotropins
Fertility control
Can cause a flare or hypogonadal state
Prevents premature luteinization
GnRH agonists