Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/39

Click to flip

39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Catecholamine synthesis begins with what amino acid?
tyrosine
During catecholamine synthesis, there are 4 possible neurotransmitters which may be formed. What are they?
DOPA
Dopamine
NE
Epi
What are the three substances that breakdown catecholamines?
MAO-A
MAO-b
COMT
How does botulinum toxin exert its effects on Ach release?
It blocks vesicles containing Ach from binding to the membrane inhibiting thier release.
Which receptors do neuromuscular junction blockers effect with respect to Ach?
postsynaptic.
Organophosphates are inhibitors of what?
acetylcholinesterase
Why is Ach not a useful therapy?
It is rapidly hydrolyzed and it not not specific.
Ganglionic synapses in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems have what kind of receptors?
nicotinic
What drug can block catecholamine uptake into granules?
Hint: it is sometimes used by owners to sedate their horses
Reserpine
What drug can block direct uptake of catecholamines into the nerve terminals, or an Eric Clapton song?
Cocaine
Wher are Alpha-1 receptors primarily located?
vascular system
eye
urinary tract
Alpha-1 blocking drugs are often used for regulation of what condition?
hypertension
What general category of drug can be used in the medical management of nephrosplenic entrapment in horses?
Aplha-1 agonists
What is the most common use for aplha-1 agonists in veterinary medicine?
use of epi for CPR
The most common clinicla use of dopamine and dopamine analogs in Vet Med is the treatment of hypotension during the perianestetic period and___________________________?
forced diuresis during acute renal failure.
What are the three clinically useful esters of choline?
carbachol
bethanechol
methacholine
Of the three choline esters we discussed, which has the greatest effect on nicotinic receptors?
carbachol
What is the most common use for Pilocarpine?
used for constricting the pupil
When using antimuscarinic drugs, if aspiration occurs, which drug has the potential to cause a more severe reaction, atropine or glycopyrrolate?
Glycopyrrulate, it has a tendency to lower pH of gastric contents more.
Waht are the four basic signs of Ach toxicity?
SLUD
salivation
lacrimation
urination
defecation
What is an absolute contraindication for the use of Neostigmine?
GI obstruction.
why is atropin commonly co-admministered with drugs like neostigmine when used to reverse anesthesia
It is a competitive inhibitor of Ach so using it keeps Ach from going crazy
T/F Atropine can cross the BBB.
true
T/F Glycopyrrolate can be administered topically.
False
What choline ester is given orally and is commonly used as an adjunct for the treatment of urinary retention associated with spinal cord injury?
Bethanechol
What are the names of the two binding sites on AchE?
anionic and Esteratic
waht drug is typically administered with ir before neostigmine
atropine
What AchE inhibitor is commonly used as a diagnostic aid for myasthenia gravis?
Endrophonium
Put in order from highest to lowest, the Xylazine requirements for :
pig cat horses ruminant dogs
pigs>cats>dogs>horses>ruminants
Why should alpha 2 agonists not be used for sedation during glucose curves
They inhibit the release of insulin and become hyperglycemic
Alpha 2 adrenergic agonists affect what part on the ANS?
sympathetic
What are the net results of Alpha 2 adrenergic agonist administration, in general?
sedation
reduced anesthetic requirement
reduced stress response
analgesia
Why may there be a bluish color to the mucous membranes after administration of an alpha 2 agonist?
It is usually due to the slowed venous blood flow accompanying vasoconstriction.
What physiologic event happens very rapidly after IV admin of alpha 2 agonists?
pronounced vasoconstriction
which alpha 2 antagonist is recommended for use following the use of Medetomidine in dogs?
Antipamazole
What alpha 2 antagonist is useful for reducing pulmonary vascular resistance and is also effective at antagonizing xylazine sedation?
Tolazoline
define analgesia
absence of pain
What is the difference between opiate and opioid drugs?
Opiates are natural compounds purified from opium

Opioids are chemical derivitives of the compounds purified from opium
Most supraspinal analgesic actions of opioids are mesiated by what receptor?
mu