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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
four main sources of drugs are
plants
animals
minerals
laboratory(synthetic)
examples of schedule II drugs with high abuse potential that has accepted medical indications
Opium, cocaine, morphine, codeine, oxycodone, methadone, secobarbital
four types of drug names
chemical
generic
official
brand
a chemical used to diagnose, treat or prevent disease
drug
ex of schedule III drugs with less abuse potential than schedule I. has accepted medical indications
vicodin, tylenol with codeine
schedule IV drug examples
Diazepam, lorazepam, phenobarbital
the study of drugs and their interactions with the body
pharmacology
schedule V drugs, low abuse potential and has accepted medical indications
limited amounts of opioids often for cough or diarrhea
test that determines the amount and purity of a given chemical in a preparation in the laboratory
assay
examples of schedule one drugs with high abuse potential
Heroin,LSD,mescaline
specialized protein that combines with a drug resulting in a biochemical effect
receptor
drug prepared using an alcohol extraction process, some alcohol usually remains in the final drug preg
tinctures
drugs mixed with a waxlike base that melts at body temp
suppositories
drugs shaped spherically to be easy to swallow
pills
this route which offers very rapid absorption is especially useful for delivering drugs whose target tissues are in the lungs
inhalation/nebulized
this route allows a slower absorption than iv administration as the drug passes into the capillaries
IM intramuscular
With its rapid onset, this is the preferred route in most emergencies
intravenous---IV
delivery of a medication outside of the GI tract, typically using needles to inject medications into the circulatory system or tissues
parenteral route
the breakage of a chemical bond by adding water
hydrolysis
the livers partial or complete inactivation of a drug before it reaches the systemic circulation
first-pass effect
the body's breaking down chemicals into different chemicals
metabolism
tight junctions of the capillary endothelial cells in the central nervous system vasculature through which only non-protein-bound, highly lipid-soluble drugs can pass
blood brain barrier
to become electrically charged or polar
ionize
movement of molecules across a membrane from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure
filtration
movement of solute in a solution from and area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
diffusion
process in which carrier proteins transport large molecules across the cell membrane
carrier-mediated diffusion or facilitated diffusion
how a drug interacts with the body to cause its effects
pharmacodynamics
how a drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized and excreted:how drugs are transported into and out of the body
pharmacokinetics
medication that may deform or kill the fetus
teratogenic drug
what are the six rights of medication administration
right person, right drug, right dose, right time, right route, right documentation
most common liquid preparation generally water based or oil based liquid drug
solution
gelatin containers filled with powder or timy pills
capsules
powders compressed into disk-like form
tablets
allows slow continuous release of drugs through the skin
transdermal
this route is slower than IM because the subQ tissue is less vascular than the muscular tissue
SUB-Q
delivers drugs to the medullary space of bone and most often used as an alternative to iv administration in both children and adults
IO intraosseous
most emergency medications are given iv to avoid drug degradation in which organ
liver
delivery of a medication through the gastrointestinal tract
enteral route
the loss of hydrogen atoms or the acceptance of an oxygen atom. this increases the positive charge or lessens the negative charge on the molecule.
oxidation
medication that is not active when administered but whose biotransformation converts it into active metabolites
prodrug
biochemical barrier at the maternal/fetal interface that restricts certain molecules
placental barrier
amount of a drug that is still active after it reaches its target tissue
bioavailability
the body absorbs most drugs (faster or slower) when they are given IM than when they are given subq
faster
movement of a SOLVENT in a solution from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration
osmosis
movement of a substance without the use of energy
passive transport
requires the use of energy to move a substance
active transport
geriatric patients may absorb oral medication different from other pt's. it is slower or faster
slower
proportion of a drug available in the body to cause either desired or undesired effects
free drug availability
Special considerations of drug administration include
pregnant patients
pediatric patients
geriatric patients
drug or other substance that blocks the actions of the sympathetic nervous system
sympatholytic
drug or other substance that blocks or inhibits the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system(also called anticholinergic)
parasympatholytic
pertaining to the neurotransmitter norepinephrine
adrenergic
chemical messenger that conducts a nervous impulse across a synapse
neurotransmitter
the part of the nervous system that controls involuntary actions
autonomic nervous system
medication that induces a loss of sensation to touch or pain
anesthetic
the absence of all sensations
anethesia
medication that relieves the sensation of pain
analgesic
time the body takes to clear one half of a drug
biologic half life
the time from administration until a medication reaches its minimum effective concentration
onset of action
one drug binds to a receptor and causes the expected effect while also blocking another drug from triggering toe same receptor
competitive antagonism
drugs that binds to a receptor but does not cause it to initiate the expected response
antagonist
a drugs ability to cause the expected response
efficacy
test to ascertain a drugs availability in a biological model
bioassay
drugs used to treat hypertension
antihypertensive
drugs or other substance that causes effects like those of the sympathetic nervous system
sympathomimetic
drug or other substance that causes effects like those of the parasympathetic nervous system
parasympathomimetic
pertaining to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine
cholinergic
space between nerves is known as
synapse
state of decreased anxiety and inhibitions
sedation
agent that enhances the effects of other drugs
adjunct medication
the absence of the sensation of pain
analgesia
drug that best demonstrates the class's common properties and illustrates its particular characteristics
prototype
length of time the amount of drug remains above its minimum effective concentration
duration of action
unintended response to a drug
side effect
drug that binds to a receptor and stimulates some of its effects but blocks others
agonist-antagonist
drug that binds to a receptor and causes it to initiate the expected response
agonist
force of attraction between a drug and a receptor
affinity