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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 5 groups of behavior modifying drugs?
1. Benzodiazepines
2. Azapirones
3. Tricyclic antidepressants
4. Agents affecting Serotonin
5. Agents affecting Monoamine Oxidase
What behavior modifying drug(s) are Benzodiazpine Agents?
1. Diazepam
2. Clorazepate
What behavior modifying drug(s) are Azapirones?
1. Buspirone
What behavior modifying drug(s) are Tricyclic antidepressants?
1. Amitriptyline
2. Clomipramine
What behavior modifying drug(s) are agents affecting Serotonin?
1. Fluoxetine
2. Paroxetine
What behavior modifying drug(s) are agents affecting Monoamine Oxidase?
1. Selegiline
What is the mechanism of Benzodiazpine Agents?
GABA Agonist – binds GABA receptor, increases GABA binding affinity, increases Cl- into cell
What is the mechanism of Azapirones?
Full agonist at presynaptic and partial at postsynaptic 5HT-1A agonist
What is the mechanism of Tricyclic antidepressants?
SNRI – blocks serotonin and NE uptake
What is the mechanism of agents affecting Serotonin?
Inhibits serotonin reuptake
What is the mechanism of agents affecting monoamine oxidase?
MAO-B antagonist – decreases dopamine metabolism
Norepinephrine is a deriverative of what?
What 2 things metabolize norepi?
1. Monoamine oxidase (MAO)

2. Catechol-O-methyl transferse (COMT)
What receptors does norepi act on?
• Acts on beta-1, alpha-1, alpha-2 receptors (very little activity on beta-2 receptors)
What is Dopamine a deriverative of?
What 2 things metabolize Dopamine?
1. Monoamine oxidase (MAO)

2. Catechol-O-methyl transferse (COMT)
What does Dopamine do to ACh activity?
• Dopamine normally suppresses ACh activity: when Dopa receptors are blocked, ACh activity increases
What is serotonin a derivative of?
What is ACh synthesized from?
choline and acetyl CoA
What metabolizes ACh?
What is GABA?
Major inhibitory NT in CNS
What is GABA a derivative of?
Monamine theory of depression
depression in people is caused by deficiency of monoamine NTs, usually serotonin or Nor
What NT cause changes in behavior?
* Norepi
* Dopamine
* ACh
* Serotonin
What are Benzodiazepine agents also referred to as?
Anxiolytic drugs = used to treat anxiety
What type of drug is Diazepam?
What is Diazepam used for?
•Dogs: used for behavior disorders as sedative, anxiolytic

*** crosses BBB; can be used in emergency situations to treat seizures

•Cats: used to treat urine spraying
What is the trade name foe Diazepam?
What are some adverse side effects of Diazepam?
Tachyphylaxis, tolerance, hepatic necrosis (cats),aggression, anxiety, stimulates appetite in anorexic cats
What type of drug is Clorazepate?
What is Clorazepate metabolized to?
Metabolized in acidic stomach to active form of diazepam
What type of drug is Buspirone?

(nonsedating, nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic drug)
What is the MOA of Buspirone?
* Its an agonist at presynaptic and postsynaptic 5HT1A receptors

(acts as serotonin agonist)
What does Buspirone do to Serotonin levels?
Drug action can increase or decrease serotonin presence, depending on receptor location
What is the main use of Buspirone?
used in cats to treat cases of urine spraying (o Does not have an immediate behavioral effect—requires several weeks of administration first)

**Short elimination half-life—administered multiple times per day
What type of drugs are Tricyclic anti-depressants (TCAs)?
SNRI = selective norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake inhibitors
What is the mechanism of a SNRI?
inhibit reuptake of serotonin and Nor; alpha1 antagonist
What are the general effects of SNRIs?
moderate excessive arousal, reduce anxiety, enhance learning, maybe pain relief, Antihistaminic and Anticholinergic
How are SNRIs metabolized?
extensive metabolism by CYP450 enzyme
What are the contraindications with SNRIs?
don’t use with patients with glaucoma or keratoconjunctivitis
What side effects can be seen with SNRIs?
mild sedation, GI upset, dry mouth, constipation, fatal cardiac arrhythmias, lower seizure thresh hold
What type of drug is Amitriptyline?
Tricyclic anti-depressants (SNRI)
What is Amitriptyline used for in horses?
behavioral calming
What is Amitriptyline used for in dogs?
seperation anxiety
What is Amitriptyline used for in cats?
psychogenic alopecia, Urine spraying
What is MOA of Amitriptyline?
Block re-uptake of 5HT and norepinephrine
Which drug is the most selective of drug class in blocking serotonin (5HT) reuptake?
What type of drug is Clompramine?
Tricyclic anti-depressants (SNRI)
What are contraindications of using Clompramine?
patients with hyperparathyroidism; don’t coadminister with MAOIs
What are adverse side effects of Clompramine?
* Anorexia, emesis, diarrhea, elevation of liver enzymes, sedation/lethargy/depression

* May lower seizure threshold

* Anticholinergic effects: decreased GI motility, urinary retention, cardiac arrhythmias, increased intraocular P

**Cats are more susceptible to the anticholinergic and sedation effects than dogs
What is SSRI?
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI)-Block reuptake of serotonin
Why are SSRIs used in dogs?
Seperation anxiety, compulsive disorders, dominance or impulsive aggression
Why are SSRIs used in cats?
aggression, inappropriate urination and spraying, excessive grooming, anxiety, aggression
Why are SSRIs used in horses?
decreased libido, not approved
What are adverse side effects of SSRIs?
GI upset, sedation, agitation, irritability, insomnia,anorexia
What type of drug is Fluoxetine?
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI)
Why is Fluoxetine used in dogs?
Compulsion, aggression, seperation anxiety (FDA)
Why is Fluoxetine used in cats?
Psychogenic alopecia, Urine spraying. aggression
Why is Fluoxetine used in polar bears?
Why is Fluoxetine used in horses?
Banned in racehorses
What are the contraindications with Fluoxetine?
patients with diabetes mellitus, patients with epilepsy or seizures; don’t give with drugs that lower seizure threshold
What are the adverse effects of Fluoxetine?
inappetence, lethargy, vomiting
What type of drug is Paroxetine?
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI)

(Not as good of efficacy as fluoxetine)
Why is Paroxetine used in dogs?
compulsions, aggression
Why is Paroxetine used in cats?
generalized anxiety, aggression, compulsion
What are adverse effects of paroxetine?
Dry mouth, constipation
What is an MAOI?
monoamine oxidase inhibitor
What is the MOA of MAOIs?
They inhibit the intracellular cellular enzyme MAO which inhibits catabolism of intracellular monoamine NT (i.e. serotonin, dopamine, Nor)

* There is an increase in presence/action of monoamines
What is the difference between MAO A and B?
• MAO subtype A: affects serotonin, dopamine, Nor, tyramine; found in intestine and CNS

•MAO subtype B: affects phenylethylamine, dopamine
What type of drug is Selegiline?
Inhibits Monoamine Oxidase Type B (MAOI)
What does Seleginine cause an increase in?
-Increases serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, tyramine

(Can inhibit catecholamines)
What is Selegiline FDA approved for in dogs?
canine cognitive dysfunction and canine pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticocism (Cushing’s Disease)
What animals is Selegiline not used in?
* Not approved in horses

* Do not use in aggressive animals
What type of drugs should Selegiline not be used with?
Don’t give with drugs that increase serotonin