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102 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What agent would you administer to a suspected morphine overdose patient? Be specific as to route of administration and duration of treatment.
Naloxone
IV
Treat with Naloxone until you are sure the effects of morphine will not come back because of the short half life of Naloxone
Describe the three predominant characteristics of morphine overdose.
Pin point pupils
Sedation or coma
Low respiratory rate (respiratory depression)
Which of the following agents would increase sedation caused by morphine?

A. ethanol
B. diazepam
C. chlorpromazine
D. clomipramine
E. All of the above
E. All of the above
Name two parts of the brain involved in mediating analgesia?
Spinal cord, Thalamus, cortex, Limbic system, Spinothalamic tract, Periaquductal grey, substantioa gelatinosa
Which of the following agents would increase sedation caused by morphine?

A. acetominophen
B. chlomipramine
C. methylphenidate
D. citalopram
E. All of the above
B. chlomipramine
What agent would you administer to a suspected morphine overdose patient? Be specific as to route of administration and duration of treatment.
IV Naloxone until all symptoms are gone
What are two effects opiates have on the digestive system?
Increase constipation
Increase billiary pressure
Which of the following agents would increase sedation caused by morphine?

A. amphetamine
B. haloperidol
C. escitalopram
D. chlorpromazine
E. All of the above
D. chlorpromazine
What is the mechanism of action to cause death in a morphine overdose patient? Be specific as to receptors, receptor location and physiological response.
Mu receptors in medulla decrease respiratory rate to point of suffocation.
What are two effects opiates have on smooth muscle cells in the uritogenital system?
Increase urinary retention
Decrease uterine contractions
Which of the following effects would a kappa selective agonist cause?

A. Increase dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens
B. Decrease substance P release from the primary afferent nerve terminal
C. Activation of the chemoreceptor trigger zone
D. Decrease action potentials in spinothalamic neurons
E. All of the above
D. Decrease action potentials in spinothalamic neurons
Which of the following effects would a kappa selective agonist cause?

A. Pupilary dilation
B. Respiratory depression
C. Constipation
D. Urinary retention
E. None of the above
E. None of the above
Which of the following effects would a mu selective agonist cause?

A. Hyperpolarize membrane potentials in spinothalamic neurons
B. Inhibition of descending serotonergic pathways
C. Inhibition of the limbic system response to pain
D. Stimulate the firing of locus ceruleus neurons ascending to cortex
E. None of the above
C. Inhibition of the limbic system response to pain
Which of the following effects would a mu selective agonist cause?

A. Decrease the tone of the smooth muscles in the small intestine
B. Increase the response to high blood levels of carbon dioxide
C. Decrease spasms of the smooth muscle in the uterus
D. Inhibit killer T cells
E. All of the above
D. Inhibit killer T cells
In which of the following conditions would morphine-like agonists be contra-indicated?

A. A person having a heart attack.
B. An opiate-tolerant person with terminal bone cancer.
C A person recovering from a broken leg.
D. A pregnant lady suffering from migraine.
E. All of the above
D. A pregnant lady suffering from migraine.
Which of the following agents will decrease the dose of oxycodone needed to treat pain?

A. Ibuprophen
B. Imipramine
C. Mirtazapine
D. Amphetamine
E. All of the above
E. All of the above
Which of the following agents will increase the sedative side effects of morphine?

A. Methylphenidate
B. Sertraline.
C. Modafinil
D. Chlorpromazine.
E. All of the above
D. Chlorpromazine.
Which of the following agents is a partial agonist at mu opioid receptors?

A. Spiradoline
B. Nalbuphine
C. Pentazocine
D. Meperidine
E. All of the above
C. Pentazocine
Which of the following agents is an antagonist at kappa opioid receptors?

A. Pentazocine.
B. Nalbuphine
C. Tramadol
D. Butorphanol
E. None of the above
E. None of the above
Which of the following agents has the least abuse potential?

A. Hydromorphone
B. Remifentanyl
C. Naltrexone
D. Buprenorphine
E. All of the above
C. Naltrexone
Which of the following effects would a kappa selective agonist cause?

a. Decrease in dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens
b. Decrease substance P release from the primary afferent nerve terminal
c. Activation of the chemoreceptor trigger zone
d. Increase action potentials in spinothalamic neurons
e. All of the above
a. Decrease in dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens
Which of the following effects would a kappa selective agonist cause?

a. Constipation
b. Respiratory depression
c. Pinpoint pupils
d. Urinary retention
e. All of the above
c. Pinpoint pupils
Which of the following effects would a mu selective agonist cause?

a. Hyperpolarize membrane potentials in spinothalamic neurons
b. Activation of descending serotonergic pathways
c. Inhibit mesolimbic dopamine neurons
d. Inhibit the firing of locus ceruleus neurons descending to spinal cord
e. All of the above
b. Activation of descending serotonergic pathways
Which of the following effects would a mu selective agonist cause?

a. Increase the tone of the smooth muscles in the small intestine
b. Decrease the response to high blood levels of carbon dioxide
c. Increase tone of the smooth muscle in the uterus
d. Inhibit killer T cells
e. All of the above
e. All of the above
Which of the following agents will decrease the dose of oxycodone needed to treat pain?

a. Acetominophen
b. Amphetamine
c. Escitalopram
d. Doxepine
e. All of the above
e. All of the above
Which of the following agents will increase the sedative side effects of morphine?

a. Acetominophen
b. Amphetamine
c. Escitalopram
d. Doxepine
e. All of the above
d. Doxepine
Which of the following agents is an antagonist at kappa opioid receptors?

a. Pentazocine.
b. Nalbuphine
c. Buprenorphine
d. Butorphanol
e. All of the above
c. Buprenorphine
Which of the following agents is a partial agonist at mu opioid receptors?

a. Propoxyphene
b. Nalbuphine
c. Tramadol
d. Meperidine
e. All of the above
c. Tramadol
Which of the following agents inhibits serotonin transporters?

a. Tramadol
b. Morphine
c. Reboxetine
d. Modafinil
e. All of the above
a. Tramadol
Which of the following agents has the highest abuse potential?

a. Hydromorphone
b. Remifentanyl
c. Methadone
d. Buprenorphine
e. Heroin
b. Remifentanyl
Which of the following effects would a kappa selective agonist cause?

A. Increase in dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens
B. Decrease substance P release from the primary afferent nerve terminal
C. Activation of the chemoreceptor trigger zone
D. Decrease action potentials in spinothalamic neurons
E. All of the above
D. Decrease action potentials in spinothalamic neurons
Which of the following effects would a kappa selective agonist cause?

A. Increased parasympathetic activity in oculomotor neurons
B. Respiratory depression
C. Constipation
D. Urinary retention
E. All of the above
A. Increased parasympathetic activity in oculomotor neurons
Which of the following effects would a mu selective agonist cause?

A. Hyperpolarize membrane potentials in spinothalamic neurons
B. Inhibition of descending serotonergic pathways
C. Activation of the limbic system response to pain
D. Inhibit the firing of locus ceruleus neurons ascending to cortex
E. All of the above
D. Inhibit the firing of locus ceruleus neurons ascending to cortex
Which of the following effects would a mu selective agonist cause?

A. Decrease the tone of the smooth muscles in the small intestine
B. Decrease the response to high blood levels of carbon dioxide
C. Decrease spasms of the smooth muscle in the uterus
D. Activate killer T cells
E. All of the above
B. Decrease the response to high blood levels of carbon dioxide
In which of the following conditions would morphine-like agonists be contra-indicated?

A. A person suffering from arthritis.
B. An alcoholic with chronic back pain.
C. A person recovering from a serious head injury.
D. A elderly person suffering from migraine.
E. All of the above
E. All of the above
Which of the following agents will decrease the dose of oxycodone needed to treat pain?

A. Ibuprophen
B. Tranylcypromine
C. Mirtazapine
D. Citalopram
E. All of the above
E. All of the above
Which of the following agents will increase the sedative side effects of morphine?

A. Amitriptyline
B. Methylphenidate
C. Modafinil
D. Sertraline
E. All of the above
A. Amitriptyline
Which of the following agents is an antagonist at mu opioid receptors?

A. Pentazocine
B. Nalbuphine
C. Tramadol
D. Meperidine
E. All of the above
B. Nalbuphine
Which of the following agents inhibits serotonin transporters?

A. Tramadol
B. Meperidine
C. Duloxetine
D. Sibutramine
E. All of the above
E. All of the above
Which of the following agents has the highest abuse potential?

A. Hydromorphone
B. Remifentanyl
C. Naltrexone
D. Buprenorphine
E. All of the above
B. Remifentanyl
Which of the following drugs decrease GABA inhibition of dopamine neuronal firing in the mesolimbic pathway?

A. Morphine
B. Nalbuphine
C. Diazepam
D. Ethanol
E. All of the above
A. Morphine
Which of the following drugs increase GABA inhibition of dopamine neuronal firing in the mesolimbic pathway?

A. Ethanol
B. Diazepam
C. Naltrexone
D. Lorazepam
E. None of the above
C. Naltrexone
Which of the following drugs block or reverse dopamine transporters?

A. Ethanol
B. Buspirone
C. Cocaine
D. Sertraline
E. All of the above
C. Cocaine
True/False
Morphine exhibits pharmacokinetic tolerance with repeated daily use
False
True/False
Morphine exhibits pharmacodynamic tolerance with repeated daily use
True
Which of the following will probably increase the abuse potential of a drug?

a. Smoking it rather than snorting it
b. Taking a different drug that will increase basal levels of dopamine in mesolimbic pathways
c. If it can decrease stimulated levels of dopamine in mesolimbic pathways
d. If it can increase prefrontal cortex inhibition of nucleus accumbens
e. All of the above
a. Smoking it rather than snorting it
Which of the following drugs decrease dopamine neuronal activity either by a direct inhibition of dopamine neurons or via an indirect stimulation of GABA inhibition of dopamine neuronal firing in the mesolimbic pathway?

A. Buspirone
B. Nalbuphine
C. Diazepam
D. Ethanol
E. All of the above
B. Nalbuphine
Which of the following drugs increase GABA inhibition of dopamine neuronal firing in the mesolimbic pathway?

A. Naltrexone
B. Diazepam
C. Ethanol
D. Lorazepam
E. All of the above
A. Naltrexone
Which of the following should decrease the abuse potential of cocaine?

A. Smoking it rather than injecting it intravenously
B. Taking a drug that will decrease basal levels of dopamine in mesolimbic pathways
C. Taking a drug that will decrease stimulated levels of dopamine in mesolimbic pathways
D. Taking a drug that will decrease prefrontal cortex inhibition of nucleus accumbens
E. All of the above
C. Taking a drug that will decrease stimulated levels of dopamine in mesolimbic pathways
Which of the following treatments for alcoholics may help decrease protracted withdrawal symptoms?

A. Propranolol
B. Disulfiram
C. Nalbuphine
D. Naltrexone
E. All of the above
D. Naltrexone
Which of the following drugs decrease dopamine neuronal activity either by a direct inhibition of dopamine neurons or via an indirect stimulation of GABA inhibition of dopamine neuronal firing in the mesolimbic pathway?

a. Buspirone
b. Ethanol
c. Varenicline
d. Nalbuphine
e. All of the above
d. Nalbuphine
Which of the following drugs decrease GABA inhibition of dopamine neuronal firing in the mesolimbic pathway?

a. Naltrexone
b. Diazepam
c. Meperidine
d. Ethanol
e. All of the above
c. Meperidine
Which of the following effects would a kappa selective agonist cause?

A. Decrease action potentials in spinothalamic neurons.
B. Decrease substance P release from the primary afferent nerve terminal.
C. Activation of descending serotonergic pathways
D. Increase in dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens
E. All of the above are correct
F. Only A and C are true.
F. Only A and C are true.
Which of the following effects would a kappa selective agonist cause?

A. Urinary retention
B. Respiratory depression
C. Constipation
D. Catalepsy and muscular rigidity
E. All of the above are correct
F. Only A and C are true.
D. Catalepsy and muscular rigidity
Which of the following effects would a mu selective agonist cause?

A. Decrease substance P release from the primary afferent nerve terminal.
B. Inhibit the firing of locus ceruleus neurons ascending to cortex
C. Inhibition of the limbic system response to pain
D. Activation of descending serotonergic pathways
E. All of the above are correct
F. Only A and C are true.
E. All of the above are correct
Which of the following effects would a mu selective agonist cause?

A. Increase parasympathetic activity in oculomotor neurons.
B. Respiratory depression
C. Constipation
D. Urinary retention
E. All of the above are correct
F. Only A and C are true.
E. All of the above are correct
In which of the following conditions would morphine-like agonists be contra-indicated?

A. A person suffering from the pain of myocardial infarction.
B. A person recovering from broken bones caused by a car accident.
C. A person recovering from a cracked skull caused by a car accident
D. A person suffering from the pain of multiple myeloma.
E. All of the above are correct
F. Only A and C are true.
C. A person recovering from a cracked skull caused by a car accident
Which of the following agents will decrease the dose of propoxyphene needed to treat pain?

A. Acetominophen.
B. Venlafaxine.
C. Imipramine
D. Amphetamine
E. All of the above are correct
F. Only A and C are true.
E. All of the above are correct
Which of the following agents will increase the sedative side effects of morphine?

A. Amitriptylene.
B. Diphenhydramine.
C. Alprazolam.
D. Chlorpromazine.
E. All of the above are correct
F. Only A and C are true.
E. All of the above are correct
Which of the following agents is a partial agonist at mu opioid receptors?

A. Pentazocine.
B. Nalbuphine.
C. Tramadol.
D. Meperidine.
E. All of the above are correct
F. Only A and C are true
F. Only A and C are true
Which of the following agents is an antagonist at kappa opioid receptors?

A. Naltrexone.
B. Nalbuphine
C. Buprenorphine
D. Butorphanol
E. All of the above are correct
F. Only A and C are true.
F. Only A and C are true.
Which of the following agents has the highest abuse potential?

A. Nalbuphine.
B. Loperamide
C. Buprenorphine
D. Sufentanil
E. All of the above are correct
F. Only A and C are true.
D. Sufentanil
Which of the following drugs decrease dopamine neuronal activity either by a direct inhibition of dopamine neurons or via an indirect stimulation of GABA inhibition of dopamine neuronal firing in the mesolimbic pathway?

A. Gamma vinyl GABA
B. Spiradoline
C. Naloxone
D. Nalbuphine
E. All of the above are correct
F. Only A and C are true.
E. All of the above are correct
Which of the following drugs decrease GABA inhibition of dopamine neuronal firing in the mesolimbic pathway?

A. Meperidine
B. Gamma vinyl GABA
C. Buprenorphine
D. Lorazepam
E. All of the above are correct
F. Only A and C are true.
F. Only A and C are true.
Which of the following drugs block or reverse dopamine transporters?

A. Bupropion
B. Buspirone
C. Cocaine
D. Sertraline
E. All of the above are correct
F. Only A and C are true.
F. Only A and C are true.
This opiate can cause physical dependence but can also precipitate withdrawal symptoms when given to an active heroin addict

A. Dextromethorphan
B. Methadone
C. Oxycodone
D. Fentanyl
E. Tramadol
F. Nalbuphine
G. Loperamide
H. Naltrexone
I. Triazelam
F. Nalbuphine
This agent has no affinity for any opioid receptor subtype

A. Dextromethorphan
B. Methadone
C. Oxycodone
D. Fentanyl
E. Tramadol
F. Nalbuphine
G. Loperamide
H. Naltrexone
I. Triazelam
A. Dextromethorphan
This agent has high affinity for all opioid receptor subtypes but no intrinsic activity at any of them.

A. Dextromethorphan
B. Methadone
C. Oxycodone
D. Fentanyl
E. Tramadol
F. Nalbuphine
G. Loperamide
H. Naltrexone
I. Triazelam
H. Naltrexone
This drug’s efficacy as an analgesic is increased by compounding with an NSAID.

A. Dextromethorphan
B. Methadone
C. Oxycodone
D. Fentanyl
E. Tramadol
F. Nalbuphine
G. Loperamide
H. Naltrexone
I. Triazelam
C. Oxycodone
This agent has strong antitussive actions but no abuse potential.

A. Dextromethorphan
B. Methadone
C. Oxycodone
D. Fentanyl
E. Tramadol
F. Nalbuphine
G. Loperamide
H. Naltrexone
I. Triazelam
A. Dextromethorphan
The opiate agonist with less abuse potential because of its slow entry into the brain and long half-life

A. Dextromethorphan
B. Methadone
C. Oxycodone
D. Fentanyl
E. Tramadol
F. Nalbuphine
G. Loperamide
H. Naltrexone
I. Triazelam
B. Methadone
The analgesic with less abuse potential and side effects because it is a mu partial agonist.

A. Dextromethorphan
B. Methadone
C. Oxycodone
D. Fentanyl
E. Tramadol
F. Nalbuphine
G. Loperamide
H. Naltrexone
I. Triazelam
E. Tramadol
The analgesic with less abuse potential and side effects because it is a mu antagonist.

A. Dextromethorphan
B. Methadone
C. Oxycodone
D. Fentanyl
E. Tramadol
F. Nalbuphine
G. Loperamide
H. Naltrexone
I. Triazelam
F. Nalbuphine
This drug has no abuse potential because it can't cross the blood brain barrier.

A. Dextromethorphan
B. Methadone
C. Oxycodone
D. Fentanyl
E. Tramadol
F. Nalbuphine
G. Loperamide
H. Naltrexone
I. Triazelam
G. Loperamide
Most potent analgesic listed here.

A. Dextromethorphan
B. Methadone
C. Oxycodone
D. Fentanyl
E. Tramadol
F. Nalbuphine
G. Loperamide
H. Naltrexone
I. Triazelam
D. Fentanyl
Highly effective analgesic due to combined opiate and nonopiate actions

A. Dextromethorphan
B. Methadone
C. Oxycodone
D. Fentanyl
E. Tramadol
F. Nalbuphine
G. Loperamide
H. Naltrexone
E. Tramadol
Of the agents listed which is most likely to cause dysphoria.

A. Dextromethorphan
B. Methadone
C. Oxycodone
D. Fentanyl
E. Tramadol
F. Nalbuphine
G. Loperamide
H. Naltrexone
F. Nalbuphine
Decreases positively reinforcing effects of alcohol in alcoholics.

A. Dextromethorphan
B. Methadone
C. Oxycodone
D. Fentanyl
E. Tramadol
F. Nalbuphine
G. Loperamide
H. Naltrexone
H. Naltrexone
Naloxone

A. Directly stimulate dopamine neuronal firing
B. Increase GABA inhibition of dopamine neuronal firing
C. No effect on mesolimbic dopamine activity when used alone
D. Mimic increased dopamine activity by blocking dopamine transporters
E. Increases dopamine neuronal transmission but mechanism unknown.
F. Decrease GABA inhibition of dopamine neuronal firing
G. Directly inhibit dopamine neuronal firing
B. Increase GABA inhibition of dopamine neuronal firing
Meperidine

A. Directly stimulate dopamine neuronal firing
B. Increase GABA inhibition of dopamine neuronal firing
C. No effect on mesolimbic dopamine activity when used alone
D. Mimic increased dopamine activity by blocking dopamine transporters
E. Increases dopamine neuronal transmission but mechanism unknown.
F. Decrease GABA inhibition of dopamine neuronal firing
G. Directly inhibit dopamine neuronal firing
F. Decrease GABA inhibition of dopamine neuronal firing
Cocaine

A. Directly stimulate dopamine neuronal firing
B. Increase GABA inhibition of dopamine neuronal firing
C. No effect on mesolimbic dopamine activity when used alone
D. Mimic increased dopamine activity by blocking dopamine transporters
E. Increases dopamine neuronal transmission but mechanism unknown.
F. Decrease GABA inhibition of dopamine neuronal firing
G. Directly inhibit dopamine neuronal firing
D. Mimic increased dopamine activity by blocking dopamine transporters
Spiradoline

A. Directly stimulate dopamine neuronal firing
B. Increase GABA inhibition of dopamine neuronal firing
C. No effect on mesolimbic dopamine activity when used alone
D. Mimic increased dopamine activity by blocking dopamine transporters
E. Increases dopamine neuronal transmission but mechanism unknown.
F. Decrease GABA inhibition of dopamine neuronal firing
G. Directly inhibit dopamine neuronal firing
G. Directly inhibit dopamine neuronal firing
True/False
A kappa selective agonist would decrease substance P release from the primary afferent nerve terminal.
False
True/False
A kappa selective agonist would decrease action potentials in spinothalamic neurons.
True
True/False
A kappa selective agonist would cause inhibition of the limbic system response to pain
True
True/False
A kappa selective agonist would cause activation of descending serotonergic pathways
True
True/False
A kappa selective agonist would increase parasympathetic activity in oculomotor neurons.
True
True/False
A kappa selective agonist would inhibit the firing of locus ceruleus neurons
True
True/False
A kappa selective agonist would cause respiratory depression
False
True/False
A kappa selective agonist would cause constipation
False
True/False
A kappa selective agonist would cause urinary retention
False
True/False
A kappa selective agonist would cause catalepsy and muscular rigidity
True
True/False
A mu selective agonist would decrease substance P release from the primary afferent nerve terminal.
True
True/False
A mu selective agonist would decrease action potentials in spinothalamic neurons.
False
True/False
A mu selective agonist would cause inhibition of the limbic system response to pain
True
True/False
A mu selective agonist would cause activation of descending serotonergic pathways
True
True/False
A mu selective agonist would increase parasympathetic activity in oculomotor neurons.
True
True/False
A mu selective agonist would inhibit the firing of locus ceruleus neurons
True
True/False
A mu selective agonist would cause respiratory depression
True
True/False
A mu selective agonist would cause constipation
True
True/False
A mu selective agonist would cause urinary retention
True
True/False
A mu selective agonist would cause catalepsy and muscular rigidity
True