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102 Cards in this Set

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first phase of drug action
pharmaceutic phase (dissolution)
2 pharmaceutic phases
disintegration
dissolution
breakdown of tablet into smaller particles
disintegration
dissolving of smaller particles in GI fluid before absorption
dissolution
process of drug movement to achieve drug action
pharmacokinetic phase
4 processes of pharmacokinetic phase
absorption
distribution
metabolism (biotransformation)
excretion (elimination)
movement of drug particles from GI tract to body fluids by passive absorption, active absorption or pinocytosis
absorption
absorption occurs mostly by diffusion (movement from higher concentration to lower concentration)
passive absorption
absorption requires a carrier, such as an enzyme or protein, to move drug against a concentration gradient
active absorption
process by which cells carry drug across their membrane by engulfing drug particles
pinocytosis
process in which drug passes to liver first
first-pass effect (hepatic first pass)
(subcategory of absorption) percentage of administered drug dose that reaches systemic circulation
bioavailability
process by which drug becomes available to body fluids and body tissues
distribution
time it takes for one half of drug concentration to be eliminated
half-life (t 1/2)
main route of drug elimination is through the ____
kidneys (urine)
study of drug concentration and its effect on body (phase)
pharmacodynamic phase
estimates the margin of safety of drug through use of a ratio that measures the effective (therapeutic or concentration) dose (ED) in 50% of persons or animals (ED50) and the lethat dose (LD) in 50% of animals (LD50)
therapeutic index (TI)
the closer the ratio is to 1, the greater the danger of toxicity
therapeutic index (TI)
LD50/ED50
therapeutic index (TI)
highest plasma concentration of drug at a specific time
peak drug level
lowest plasma concentration of a drug, and it measures the rate at which the drug is eliminated
trough level
4 steps of nursing process
assessment/nursing diagnosis
planning
implementation
evaluation
nursing process that is particularly important because the data provided form the basis on care
assessment
nursing process that is characterized by goal setting or expected outcomes
planning
nursing process that includes the nursing actions/interventions necessary to accomplish the established goals or expected outcomes
implementation
nursing process that includes client teaching
implementation
nursing process that includes the effectiveness of health teaching about drug therapy and attainment of goals that are addressed
evaluation
five-plus-five rights of drug administation (1st)
T = right time
R = right route
A = right amount
M = right medication
P = right patient
five-plus-five rights of drug administation (2nd)
A = right assessment
D = right documentation
E = client's right to education
E = client's right to evaulation
R = client's right to refuse
what is the goal of drug administation?
decrease the rate of medication errors
who devised the food pyramid
u.s. department of agriculture (usda)
ranked measure of glycemic effect of foods
glycemic index
role of proteins in nutrition
help to maintain the fluid and mineral composition of various body fluids
protein food sources x2
lean cuts
fish
poultry
beans
nuts
whole grains
role of fiber in nutrition
aids in maintaining the health of the digestive tract and helps to prevent or control certain diseases
fiber food sources x2
fresh fruits & veggies
nuts & legumes
whole grains
role of fats in nutrition
provide essential fatty acids and is a concentrated energy source
water soluble vitamins
B-complex vitamins
vitamin C
group of vitamins that are not usually toxic unless taken in extemely excessive amounts
water soluble vitamins
vitamins that are not stored by the body and are readily excreted in urine
water soluble vitamins
foods that are high in vitamin B
grains
cereal
bread
meats
foods that are high in vitamin C
citrus fruits
tomatoes
leafy green veggies
potatoes
strawberries
thiamine vitamin
vitamin B1
riboflavin vitamin
vitamin B2
nicotinic acid or niacin vitamin
vitamin B3
pyridoxine vitamin
vitamin B6
promotes use of sugars (energy); required for good function of nervous system and heart
vitamin B1 (thiamine)
promotes body's use of carbohydrates, proteins and fats by releasing energy to cells; required for tissue integrity
vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
given to alleviate pellagra and hyperlipidemia, for which large doses are required
vitamin B3 (nicotinic acid or niacin)
important in metabolism, synthesis of proteins and formation of RBC's
vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
helps tissue repair and growth; required in formation of collagen
vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
functions as building block of nucleic acids and to form RBC's; faciltates functioning of nervous system
vitamin B12 (cobalamin)
used to treat neonates with seizures refractive to traditional therapy
vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
ascorbic acid
vitamin C
promotes use of phosphorus and calcium; important for strong teeth and bones
vitamin D (calciferol)
protects fatty acids and promotes formation and functioning of RBC's, muscle and other tissues
vitamin E
essentioal for blood clotting
vitamin K
cobalamin vitamin
vitamin B12
fat-soluble vitamins
vitamins A, D, E & K
required for development and maintenance of healthy eyes, gums, teeth, skin, hair and selected glands; needed for fat metabolism
vitamin A
foods sources for vitamin D
fortified milk
egg
yolk
tuna
salmon
food sources for vitamin K
leafy green veggies
liver
cheese
egg yolk
vegetable oil
tomatoes
food sources for vitamin A
whole milk
butter
eggs
leafy green & yellow veggies and fruits
role of fats in nutriton
provides energy
mineral vital for hemoglobin regeneration
iron
food sources for iron
liver
lean meats
egg yolks
dried beans
green veggies (spinach)
fruit
mineral needed for formation of RBC's and connective tissues
copper
food sources for copper
shellfish (crab, oysters)
liver
nuts
seeds (sunflower, sesame)
legumes
cocoa
mineral believe to alleviate common cold
zinc
food sources for zinc
beef
lamb
eggs
leafy and root veggies
mineral said to be helpful in control of type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent)
chromium
food sources for chromium
meats
whole-grain cereals
brewer's yeast
mineral acts as cofactor for an antioxidant enzyme that protects protein and nucleic acids from oxidative damage
selenium
food sources for selenium
meats (especially liver)
seafood
eggs
dairy products
solution used for replacement and maintenance fluid therapy
crystalloids
volume expanders
colloids
examples of crystalloids
dextrose
saline
lactated Ringer's
examples of colloids
dextran solutions
amino acids
hetastarch
Plasmanate
examples of hypotonic solutions
dextrose in water when used continuously
examples of isotonic solutions
hetastarch
dextrose 5% in water (D5W)
normal saline (0.9% sodium chloride)
lactated Ringer's solution
Ringer's solution
examples of hypertonic solutions
?
3.5 - 5.3 mEq/L
potassium (K+)
important cellular cation
potassium (K+)
135 - 145 mEq/L
sodium
major cation in ECF
sodium
signs and symtoms:
muscular weakness
headaches
abdominal cramps
nausea
vomiting
hyponatremia
signs and symptoms:
flushed skin
elevated body temperature
elevated bp
rough, dry tongue
hyperatremia
signs and symptoms:
nausea
vomiting
dysrhythmias
abdominal distention
soft, flabby muscles
hypokalemia
signs and symptoms:
nausea
abdominal cramps
oliguria (decreased urine)
tachycardia, then bradycardia
weakness, numbness or tingling in extremities
hyperkalemia
4.5 - 5.5 mEq/L
calcium
signs and symptoms:
anxiety
irritability
tetany
hypocalcemia
signs and symptoms:
flabby muscles
pain over bony areas
kidney stones of calcium composition
hypercalcemia
1.5 - 2.5 mEq/L
magnesium
signs and symptoms:
loss of deep tendon reflexes
lethargy
drowsiness
weakness
paralysis
hypotension
heart block
hypermagnesemia
signs and symptoms:
tetany
HTN
hypomagnesemia
TPN preliminary labs
electrolytes
glucose
protein
also called hyperalimentation (HA) or IV hyperalimentation (IVH); primary method for providing complete nutrients by the parenteral or IV route
total parenteral nutrition (TPN)
goal of nutrition therapy
positive-pressure nitrogen
some nursing interventions for weight reduction plan
exercise
healthy eating
residuals for enteral feedings that would indicate the need to hold feedings
> 50 ml
what diet is nutritionally inadequate?
clear-liquid diet because it lacks protein and fat
complications of TPN
pneumothorax
hemothorax
hydrothorax
air embolism
infection
hyperglycemia
hypoglycemia
fluid overload hypervolemia