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40 Cards in this Set

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What are semisolid preparations intendded for external application to the skin or mucous membranes?
Ointments
What are ointments with a high content of solid (~ 25%)?
Pastes
What are the characteristics of a paste?
solids help to form matrix, good proctective barriers, good absorbent
What is an ointment that makes the skin more pliable?
emollient
What does an ointment do to prevent harmful substance from coming in contact with the skin?
act as a protective barrier
What does an ointment do to promote the retention of water in the skin by forming a hydrophobic barrier that prevents the evaporation of moisture from within the skin?
act as an occlusive
What causes water to be retained because of its hygroscopic properties?
humectants (ointments)
What are the four classifications of ointments?
oleaginous or hydrocarbon base, absorption base, water-removable base, water-soluble base
What is yellow petrolatum?
vaseline
What is white petrolatum?
White vaseline
What is yellow ointment?
yellow wax and petrolatum
What is white ointment?
white wax and white petrolatum
What are the three types of oleaginous bases for ointments?
petrolatum, synthetic esters (glyceryl monosterates, isopropyl myristate, isopropyl palmitate, long chain alcohols), lanolin derivatives (used in cosmetics)
What are the characteristics of absorption bases?
insoluble in water but can absorb water; can include oil soluble and water soluble medications; greasy and not washable in water, emollient, occlusive
What are hydrocarbon bases with water and oil surfactant?
anyhydrous absorption bases
What are examples of anhydrous absorption bases?
wool fat, hydrophilic petrolatum (aquafor/aquabase), lanolin (wool of sheep fat) - all can form water in oil emulsions
Cold cream, hydro cream, hydrous lanolin, and rose water are examples of what?
water in oil emulsions (hydrocarbon base, water, water oil surfactant)
What is the main composition of cold cream?
wax, mineral oil, sodium borate, water
What are water-removable bases / emulsion bases / cream bases usually used in?
dermatologic drug products
What are examples of water removable bases / emulsion bases / cream bases?
hydrophilic ointment (dermabase, aquaphilic ointment)(emulsifying agent : sodium lauryl sulfate), vanishing cream (stearic acid cream)
What are the characteristics of water-removable bases / emulsion bases / cream bases?
oil in water emulsions. Insoluble in water, but can absorb water. Non greasy, can be diluted with water or aqueous solution, emollient, non/less occlusive, better patient acceptance than hydrocarbon bases or absorption bases, water removable or washable
What are the properties of water soluble bases?
can be anyhydrous or contain water, non greasy, non occlusive, absorb water to the point of solubility, emollient, watersoluble/washable, drug release is good, used as vehicle for liquids or solid drugs, used as emollient, PRIMARY DIFFERENCE FROM WATER WASHABLE BASES: water soluble, mainly used as a dermatologic vehicle
What are two examples of water soluble bases?
peg ointment, propylene glycol, propylene glycol-ethanol
What percentage is compensated for loss in ointment compounding?
10%
How are thick liquids measured?
weight rather than volume
What are the preparation methods for ointments or creams?
fusion or cold incorporation
What is the method used for virtually all oil in water creams or ointments which are prepared at high temps as liquid emulsions and then cooled to the semisolid character at room temp (not suitable for ingredients that are unstable in heat)?
fusion
What method is used when a drug is to be added to an already prepared ointment or cream system or when the vehicle is heat liable?
cold incorporation
What are viscous liquid or semisolid emulsions usually of the oil in water type (although the other does happen)?
creams
What are the properties of creams?
opaque, white color, pleasing appearance and feel, nongreasy and washable, non occlusive
What are semisolid systems consisting of suspensions made up of either small inorganic particles or large organic molecules interpenetrated by a liquid?
gels
What do gels do when in contact with skin?
liquify
What are some examples of gelling agents?
macromolecules (carbomer 934), cellulose derivatives (carbocymethylcellulose), natural gums (tragacanth)
What is the ability to transfrom into fluid when agitated but resolidfy when resting?
thixotropy (happens in gels)
Where are gels used?
in body cavities
What are the classifications of gels?
two phase (magma) or single phase
What gel phase has a 3d matrix, is describes as magma, composed of inorganic small particles?
two phase gels
what are gelling agents for two phase gels?
aluminum hydroxide, bentonite magma, magnesia magma
What are polymeric matrix gels that contain macromolecules uniformly distributed throughout a liquid with NO apparent boundaries between the dispered macromolecules and the liquid?
single phase gel
What are gelling agents for single phase gels?
natrual gums, pectin, methyl cellulose, carbocymethyl cellulose, carbopols