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32 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Fine particles that result from the comminution of any dry substance
Agglomerates of powdered materials, 4-12 sieve (will discuss more details with tablets)
Very Coarse
Seive (No 8)
-All particles pass through sieve 8, not more than 20% pass though Sieve 60
Seive (No 20)
-All pass through sieve 20 and not more than 40% pass through sieve 60
Seive (No 40)
-All pass through sieve 40 and not more than 40% pass through sieve 80
Seive (No 60)
-All pass through sieve 60 and not more than 40% pass through sieve 100
Very Fine
Seive (No 80)
-All particles pass through sieve 80
-This method is used for powders with particles between 40-9500 micron.
-Used for large particle sized
-Particle size range
1– 3000 micron
-Allows determination of size and shape
Sedimentation rate
-Particle size measurement is done by determination of the sedimentation (settling) velocity of the particles.
-Sedimentation rate (stokes’ law)
-0.8-300 micron
Laser Scattering
-determination of small particle size particles 0.02-2,000 micron
-allows shape determination
Laser Holography
Individual imaging particles. Using 3D laser beams, i.e. allows shape determination
1.4-100 micron (small range)
Cascade Impaction
Based on the fact that powder carried by air stream will resist settling and stay flowing depending on its size.
Blending powders on small scale by using mortars
Eutectic mixture
A mixture of 2 or more solids that has a melting point lower than any of its ingredients
Medicated Powder
-Externally used
-Inhaled (local, systemic)
-Vaginal douches
-Orally after mixing with water by patient.
-Dry powder constituted by the pharmacist for oral or parenteral use.
-Agglomerates of smaller particles of powders
-Spherical or irregular
4-12 sieve size
granulation dry
-Wet the powder to create paste, pass through screen, then dry
granulation wet
-roll compactor to compact powder into sheets or slugs, then granulated to required size. Results in a lot of fines
Effervescent Granules
-Granules or course powder.
-Medication in dry mixture (Na carbonate, citric, tartaric)
-When mixed with water liberates CO2 and mask bad taste.
Effervescent Granules preparation 1-Fusion :
-The source of water to create the paste: One mole of H2O in citric acid act as binder
Size reduction, heating, sieving, Drying
-Process is done at low humidity
Effervescent Granules preparation 2- Wet method:
Water mixed with alcohol is added, dough is formed, granulated, dried
Hard gelatin capsules
-Cap & Body:
Gelatin, water, sugar, dye, titanium dioxide
-Moisture: shell has 13-16% moisture.
Capsules should be stored at conditions of intermediate humidity.
-Capsule (one end tapered)
Coni-snap capsule
-has groves to lock the body and the cap after closing capsules And curved rim to prevent denting and splitting problems
-Capsule(sharp pointed ends)
-colored band surrounds the joint between the cap and body
(filler to add bulkiness to the medication) e.g. lactose, microcrystalline cellulose
e.g. starch to enhance the powder break up and spreading after shell opening in the stomach
Glidant &/or lubricant
enhance powder flow and lubricates the machine parts) silicon dioxide, Mg stearate..(0.25-1%).
-(Na lauryl sulfate) to facilitate wetting of the capsule content by the gastrointestinal fluid
Soft gel capsule
The shell is made of
Gelatin, Polyhydric alcohol as sorbitol
-Preservative: Methylparaben
Contence cannot have Water > 5%, or low molecular weight volatile organic compound as alcohol.